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      Human papilloma virus 16/18 genotypes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of cervix in northeast Iran

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          A relation has been established between infection with high-risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV) and development of cervical cancer. To estimate the risk of HPV infection for cervical malignancies, we conducted a case-control study in northeast Iran.

          Materials and Methods:

          This study was carried out on 123 paraffin embedded blocks with exact diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A total of 100 cervical tissue specimens with normal histopathology product of hysterectomy were also used as control. Both groups were tested for the presence of HPV DNA and HPV 16/18 subtypes using PCR assay.


          Large non-keratinising subtype of cervical carcinoma was the most frequent one (62.6%), followed by keratinising and small cell subtypes (27% and 10%, respectively). Overall prevalence of HPV infection in SCC of cervix was 34.2% (42 out of 123 cases). HPV 16 was the most common type in this group (21 cases, 17.1%), followed by HPV 18 (16 cases, 13%) and other subtypes (5 cases, 4.1%). In this study, overall prevalence of HPV infection in control group was 12% (including 3% HPV 16; 5% HPV 18 and 4% other subtypes).


          Although association of HPV 16/18 and SCC of cervix was relatively higher than control group, compared with the previous study, the association between cervical SCC and HPV infection was significantly lower in our study; and possibly, the other risk factors play a major role in carcinogenesis of cervical carcinoma in this region.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: a worldwide perspective. International biological study on cervical cancer (IBSCC) Study Group.

           F Bosch,  M M Manos,  N Muñoz (1995)
          Epidemiologic studies have shown that the association of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer is strong, independent of other risk factors, and consistent in several countries. There are more than 20 different cancer-associated HPV types, but little is known about their geographic variation. Our aim was to determine whether the association between HPV infection and cervical cancer is consistent worldwide and to investigate geographic variation in the distribution of HPV types. More than 1000 specimens from sequential patients with invasive cervical cancer were collected and stored frozen at 32 hospitals in 22 countries. Slides from all patients were submitted for central histologic review to confirm the diagnosis and to assess histologic characteristics. We used polymerase chain reaction-based assays capable of detecting more than 25 different HPV types. A generalized linear Poisson model was fitted to the data on viral type and geographic region to assess geographic heterogeneity. HPV DNA was detected in 93% of the tumors, with no significant variation in HPV positivity among countries. HPV 16 was present in 50% of the specimens, HPV 18 in 14%, HPV 45 in 8%, and HPV 31 in 5%. HPV 16 was the predominant type in all countries except Indonesia, where HPV 18 was more common. There was significant geographic variation in the prevalence of some less common virus types. A clustering of HPV 45 was apparent in western Africa, while HPV 39 and HPV 59 were almost entirely confined to Central and South America. In squamous cell tumors, HPV 16 predominated (51% of such specimens), but HPV 18 predominated in adenocarcinomas (56% of such tumors) and adenosquamous tumors (39% of such tumors). Our results confirm the role of genital HPVs, which are transmitted sexually, as the central etiologic factor in cervical cancer worldwide. They also suggest that most genital HPVs are associated with cancer, at least occasionally. The demonstration that more than 20 different genital HPV types are associated with cervical cancer has important implications for cervical cancer-prevention strategies that include the development of vaccines targeted to genital HPVs.
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            Five common cancers in Iran.

            Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, it;s mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers incidence in Iran and to explain incidental differences that may help us to establish early detection programs and investigate population risk factors. A detailed PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar search were made from 2000 to 2009. The basic inclusion criteria were all relevant studies focused on cancer epidemiological data from Iran. Overall age-standard incidence rate per 100 000 population according to primary site is 110.43 in males and 98.23 in females. The five most common cancers (except skin cancer) are stomach, esophagus, colon-rectum, bladder and leukemia in males, and in females are breast, esophagus, stomach, colon-rectum and cervix uteri. The incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers are high in Iran (it is one of the known areas with a high incidence of GI cancers). Breast cancer mainly affects Iranian women about a decade earlier than Western countries and younger cases are affected by an increasing rate of colorectal cancer in Iran, near the Western rates.
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              Comprehensive study of several general and type-specific primer pairs for detection of human papillomavirus DNA by PCR in paraffin-embedded cervical carcinomas.

               M Duk,  M Baay,  H Hollema (1996)
              We have compared the efficacies of three general primer pairs for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded carcinomas. The use of these primer pairs leads to underestimates of the HPV prevalence (GP5/6, 61.1%; CPI/IIG, 57.4%; MY09/11, 46.9%; combined, 72.8%). The efficacy of each primer pair seemed to be inversely correlated to the length of the amplimer produced. By using newly developed type-specific primer pairs (amplimer length, approximately 100 bp), an increase in HPV DNA detection (87.6%) was found.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Department of Hematology and Blood Bank, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                [4 ]Cancer Molecular Pathology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Mohammad Hadi Sadeghian Department of Hematology and Blood Bank, Cancer Molecular Pathology Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran E-mail: sadeghianmh@
                Niger Med J
                Niger Med J
                Nigerian Medical Journal : Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Nov-Dec 2014
                : 55
                : 6
                : 495-498
                4262847 NMJ-55-495 10.4103/0300-1652.144706
                Copyright: © Nigerian Medical Journal

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article


                hpv 16/18, hpv, pcr, scc of cervix


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