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      Dietary diversity and its correlates among pregnant adolescent girls in Ghana

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          Abstract

          Background

          Dietary diversity, a qualitative measure of dietary intake, which reflects the variety of foods consumed has been recommended to assuage nutritional problems related to insufficient micronutrients, and food insecurity. To better understand the underlying factors for poor birth outcomes in Ghana, we assessed factors associated with dietary diversity among rural and urban pregnant adolescents in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

          Methods

          As part of a larger longitudinal cohort of 416 pregnant adolescents, the FAO minimum dietary diversity for women index was used to determine the dietary diversity score (DDS) of the participants from a previous days’ 24-hour dietary recall data. The household hunger scale (HHS) and lived poverty index (LPI) were used to determine hunger and socioeconomic status. Eating behavior and socio-demographic data were gathered using interviewer-administered questionnaires.

          Results

          The mean age of the participants was 17.5 (±1.4) years with an MDD-W of 4.4 and 56% recording inadequate MDD score. More rural (63.6%) than urban dwellers (50.6%) had inadequate DDS (p = 0.008). Among all the multiple variables tests of associations on dietary diversity, only hunger status (p = 0.028) and both food aversion and poverty status (p = 0.003) had a significant effect on the adolescents’ dietary diversity. Rural dwelling adolescents (AOR = 1.7, p = 0.035, 95% CI = 1.0–2.6) recorded higher odds for inadequate DD compared with the urban respondents. Pregnant adolescents with severe hunger had higher odds (Unadjusted OR = 1.9, p = 0.053, 95% CI 1.1–3.8) for inadequate dietary diversity compared with those with no hunger.

          Conclusions

          Inadequate DD is common among pregnant adolescents in this study and is associated with rural living, food insecurity, poverty, and food craving. Livelihood support for pregnant teenagers and nutrition education are recommended interventions to improve dietary quality and limit the consequences of poor dietary diversity.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries

          The Lancet, 382(9890), 427-451
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            How to Calculate Sample Size for Different Study Designs in Medical Research?

            Calculation of exact sample size is an important part of research design. It is very important to understand that different study design need different method of sample size calculation and one formula cannot be used in all designs. In this short review we tried to educate researcher regarding various method of sample size calculation available for different study designs. In this review sample size calculation for most frequently used study designs are mentioned. For genetic and microbiological studies readers are requested to read other sources.
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              Socioeconomic status and health: the potential role of environmental risk exposure.

              Among several viable explanations for the ubiquitous SES-health gradient is differential exposure to environmental risk. We document evidence of inverse relations between income and other indices of SES with environmental risk factors including hazardous wastes and other toxins, ambient and indoor air pollutants, water quality, ambient noise, residential crowding, housing quality, educational facilities, work environments, and neighborhood conditions. We then briefly overview evidence that such exposures are inimical to health and well-being. We conclude with a discussion of the research and policy implications of environmental justice, arguing that a particularly salient feature of poverty for health consequences is exposure to multiple environmental risk factors.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Investigation
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysis
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Conceptualization
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                8 March 2021
                2021
                : 16
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
                [2 ] Department of Community Health, School of Public Health, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
                [3 ] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Allied Health Sciences, Ho, Ghana
                [4 ] Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
                Ohio University College of Health Sciences and Professions, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-16523
                10.1371/journal.pone.0247979
                7939348
                33684165
                © 2021 Gyimah et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, Pages: 19
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Nestle Foundation
                Award Recipient :
                Funding for this study was provided by the Nestle Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Food
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Food
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Women's Health
                Maternal Health
                Pregnancy
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Women's Health
                Obstetrics and Gynecology
                Pregnancy
                People and Places
                Population Groupings
                Age Groups
                Children
                Adolescents
                People and Places
                Population Groupings
                Families
                Children
                Adolescents
                People and Places
                Geographical Locations
                Africa
                Ghana
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Health Care
                Socioeconomic Aspects of Health
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Public and Occupational Health
                Socioeconomic Aspects of Health
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Habits
                Eating Habits
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Habits
                Eating Habits
                Custom metadata
                Data cannot be shared publicly because it contains sensitive identifying information. However, data are available from the Committee on Human Research Publication and Ethics (CHRPE), the ethics board of the School of Medical Sciences of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and technology, KNUST and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana (Email: chrpe.knust.kath@ 123456gmail.com ) for researchers who meet the criteria for access to confidential data.

                Uncategorized

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