20 January 2018
cardiovascular disease, meta‐analysis, observational study, randomized controlled trial, SGLT2 (sodium–glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitor, trial sequential analysis, Metabolism, Meta Analysis, Diabetes, Type 2, Coronary Artery Disease
The cardiovascular and long‐term noncardiovascular safety and efficacy of SGLT2 (sodium–glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitors have not been well documented.
For cardiovascular outcomes, we performed a meta‐analysis with trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials and adjusted observational studies, each with a minimum of 26 weeks and 2000 patient‐years of follow‐up. For long‐term noncardiovascular safety and efficacy outcome analyses, we included only randomized controlled trials with at least 2 years and 1000 patient‐years of follow‐up. Five studies with 351 476 patients were included in cardiovascular outcomes analysis. Meta‐analyses showed that SGLT2 inhibitors significantly reduced the risks of major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio [ HR]: 0.80; 95% confidence interval [ CI], 0.69–0.92; P=0.002), all‐cause mortality ( HR: 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54–0.84; P<0.001), cardiovascular mortality ( HR: 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60–0.98; P=0.03), nonfatal myocardial infarction ( HR: 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76–0.98; P=0.02), hospitalization for heart failure ( HR: 0.62; 95% CI, 0.55–0.69; P<0.001), and progression of albuminuria ( HR: 0.68; 95% CI, 0.58–0.81; P<0.001). No significant difference in nonfatal stroke was found. Analyses limited to randomized controlled trials showed similar findings. Trial sequential analysis provided firm evidence of a 20% reduction in major adverse cardiac events, all‐cause mortality, and hospitalization for heart failure with SGLT2 inhibitors, but evidence remains inconclusive for cardiovascular mortality. Nine randomized controlled trials contributed to long‐term noncardiovascular and efficacy analyses. SGLT2 inhibitors reduced incidence of hypoglycemia and acute kidney injury but increased the risks of urinary tract and genital infections.