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      CD4 T cell epitope specificity determines follicular versus non-follicular helper differentiation in the polyclonal response to influenza infection or vaccination

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      Scientific Reports

      Nature Publishing Group

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          Abstract

          Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) are essential for B cell production of high-affinity, class-switched antibodies. Much interest in Tfh development focuses on the priming environment of CD4 T cells. Here we explored the role that peptide specificity plays in the partitioning of the polyclonal CD4 T cell repertoire between Tfh and NonTfh lineages during the response to influenza. Surprisingly, we found that CD4 T cells specific for different epitopes exhibited distinct tendencies to segregate into Tfh or NonTfh. To alter the microenvironment and abundance, viral antigens were introduced as purified recombinant proteins in adjuvant as native proteins. Also, the most prototypical epitopes were expressed in a completely foreign protein. In many cases, the epitope-specific response patterns of Tfh vs. NonTfh persisted. The functional TcR avidity of only a subset of epitope-specific cells correlated with the tendency to drive a Tfh response. Thus, we conclude that in a polyclonal CD4 T cell repertoire, features of TcR-peptide:MHC class II complex have a strong deterministic influence on the ability of CD4 T cells to become a Tfh or a NonTfh. Our data is most consistent with at least 2 checkpoints of Tfh selection that include both TcR affinity and B cell presentation.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Follicular B Helper T Cells Express Cxc Chemokine Receptor 5, Localize to B Cell Follicles, and Support Immunoglobulin Production

          Chemokines and their receptors have been identified as major regulators controlling the functional organization of secondary lymphoid organs. Here we show that expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), a chemokine receptor required for B cell homing to B cell follicles, defines a novel subpopulation of B helper T cells localizing to follicles. In peripheral blood these cells coexpress CD45RO and the T cell homing CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). In secondary lymphoid organs, CD4+CXCR5+ cells lose expression of CCR7, which allows them to localize to B cell follicles and germinal centers where they express high levels of CD40 ligand (CD40L), a costimulatory molecule required for B cell activation and inducible costimulator (ICOS), a recently identified costimulatory molecule of the CD28 family. Thus, when compared with CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5− cells, CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5+ tonsillar T cells efficiently support the production of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG. In contrast, analysis of the memory response revealed that long-lasting memory cells are found within the CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5− population, suggesting that CXCR5+CD4 cells represent recently activated effector cells. Based on the characteristic localization within secondary lymphoid organs, we suggest to term these cells “follicular B helper T cells” (TFH).
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            Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: shaping immune responses

            Key Points Crosstalk between pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed by dendritic cells orchestrates T helper (TH) cell differentiation through the induction of specific cytokine expression profiles, tailored to invading pathogens. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have an important role in orchestrating the induction of signalling pathways that regulate adaptive immune responses. CLRs can control adaptive immunity at various levels by inducing signalling on their own, through crosstalk with other PRRs or by inducing carbohydrate-specific signalling pathways. DC-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) interacts with mannose-carrying pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HIV-1, measles virus and Candida albicans to activate the serine/threonine protein kinase RAF1. RAF1 signalling leads to the acetylation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65 and affects cytokine expression, such as inducing the upregulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10). DC-associated C-type lectin 1 (dectin 1) triggering by a broad range of fungal pathogens, such as C. albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Pneumocystis carinii, results in protective antifungal immunity through the crosstalk of two independent signalling pathways — one through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and one through RAF1 — that are essential for the expression of TH1 and TH17 cell polarizing cytokines. Crosstalk between the SYK and RAF1 pathways is both synergistic and antagonizing to fine-tune NF-κB activity: although Ser276 phosphorylation of p65 leads to enhanced transcriptional activity of p65 itself through acetylation, it also inhibits the transcriptional activity of the NF-κB subunit RELB by sequestering it in p65–RELB dimers, which are transcriptionally inactive. The diversity in CLR-mediated signalling provides some major challenges for the researches to elucidate and manipulate the signalling properties of this exciting family of receptors. However, the recent advances strongly support the use of CLR targeting vaccination strategies using dendritic cells to induce or redirect adaptive immune responses as well as improve antigen delivery.
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              Cxc Chemokine Receptor 5 Expression Defines Follicular Homing T Cells with B Cell Helper Function

              Leukocyte traffic through secondary lymphoid tissues is finely tuned by chemokines. We have studied the functional properties of a human T cell subset marked by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5). Memory but not naive T cells from tonsils are CXCR5+ and migrate in response to the B cell–attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), which is selectively expressed by reticular cells and blood vessels within B cell follicles. Tonsillar CXCR5+ T cells do not respond to other chemokines present in secondary lymphoid tissues, including secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC), EBV-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine (ELC), and stromal cell–derived factor 1 (SDF-1). The involvement of tonsillar CXCR5+ T cells in humoral immune responses is suggested by their localization in the mantle and light zone germinal centers of B cell follicles and by the concomitant expression of activation and costimulatory markers, including CD69, HLA-DR, and inducible costimulator (ICOS). Peripheral blood CXCR5+ T cells also belong to the CD4+ memory T cell subset but, in contrast to tonsillar cells, are in a resting state and migrate weakly to chemokines. CXCR5+ T cells are very inefficient in the production of cytokines but potently induce antibody production during coculture with B cells. These properties portray CXCR5+ T cells as a distinct memory T cell subset with B cell helper function, designated here as follicular B helper T cells (TFH).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                22 June 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]David H. Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center , Rochester, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                srep28287
                10.1038/srep28287
                4916409
                27329272
                Copyright © 2016, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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