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IPM thresholds for Agriotes wireworm species in maize in Southern Europe

Journal of Pest Science

Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Wireworms, A. brevis, A. sordidus, A. ustulatus, IPM, Bait traps

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      Abstract

      Currently, integrated pest management (IPM) of wireworms is not widespread in Europe. Therefore, to estimate the densities of three major wireworm species in southern Europe (Agriotes brevis Candeze, A. sordidus Illiger, and A. ustulatus Schäller), bait traps were deployed pre-seeding in maize fields in north-eastern Italy between 1993 and 2011. Research discovered that there was a significant correlation between all three wireworm species caught in the bait traps and damage to maize plants, but damage symptoms varied. Wherever A. ustulatus was the main species caught, there was no significant damage to maize plants, but seeds were damaged. Most of the symptoms caused by A. brevis and A. sordidus were to the central leaf/leaves, which wilted because of feeding on the collar. A. brevis was the most harmful species; when more than one A. brevis wireworm was caught per trap, plant damage sometimes resulted in reduced yield. Five A. ustulatus larvae per trap caused the same damage to maize as one A. brevis. A. sordidus came second (threshold two larvae/trap). These thresholds are reliable for: (1) bare soil in which there are no alternative food sources; (2) average soil temperature 10 cm beneath the surface of above 8 °C for 10 days; (3) soil humidity near to field water capacity, but days of flooding have not been considered. The implementation of the practical method described herein may lead to effective IPM of wireworms in maize and to a significant reduction in the number of fields treated with soil insecticides.

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      Most cited references 43

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      Generalized Linear Models

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        PCR-based species identification of Agriotes larvae.

        Click beetle larvae within the genus Agriotes (Coleoptera: Elateridae), commonly known as wireworms, are abundant ground-dwelling herbivores which can inflict considerable damage to field crops. In Central Europe up to 20 species, which differ in their distribution, ecology and pest status, occur in arable land. However, the identification of these larvae based on morphological characters is difficult or impossible. This hampers progress towards controlling these pests. Here, we present a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach to identify, for the first time, 17 Agriotes species typically found in Central Europe. Diagnostic sequence information was generated and submitted to GenBank, allowing the identification of these species via DNA barcoding. Moreover, multiplex PCR assays were developed to identify the nine most abundant species rapidly within a single-step reaction: Agriotes brevis, A. litigiosus, A. obscurus, A. rufipalpis, A. sordidus, A. sputator, A. ustulatus, A. lineatus and A. proximus. The latter two species remain molecularly indistinguishable, questioning their species status. The multiplex PCR assays proved to be highly specific against non-agrioted elaterid beetles and other non-target soil invertebrates. By testing the molecular identification system with over 900 field-collected larvae, our protocol proved to be a reliable, cheap and quick method to routinely identify Central European Agriotes species.
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          The biology of Agriotes sordidus Illiger (Col., Elateridae)

           L. Furlan (2004)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Veneto Agricoltura, Agripolis, via dell’Università 14, Legnaro, PD Italy
            Author notes

            Communicated by M. Traugott.

            Contributors
            +39-049-8293879 , +39-049-8293815 , lorenzo.furlan@venetoagricoltura.org
            Journal
            J Pest Sci (2004)
            J Pest Sci (2004)
            Journal of Pest Science
            Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
            1612-4758
            1612-4766
            8 April 2014
            8 April 2014
            2014
            : 87
            : 4
            : 609-617
            4220100
            583
            10.1007/s10340-014-0583-5
            © The Author(s) 2014

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

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            Original Paper
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            © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

            Pests, Diseases & Weeds

            bait traps, ipm, a. ustulatus, a. sordidus, a. brevis, wireworms

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