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      Risk factors for death from canine parvoviral-related disease in Australia


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          Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious cause of serious and often fatal disease in dogs worldwide despite the availability of safe and efficacious vaccines. Although a number of studies have focussed on identifying risk factors in disease development, risk factors associated with death from CPV are largely unknown. In this study we analysed a total of 1451 CPV cases reported from an Australian surveillance system – using univariate and multivariate techniques – to determine significant risk factors associated with death and euthanasia. A crude case fatality rate of 42.3% was estimated – higher than has been reported previously. We found that 3.3% of CPV cases had a history of vaccination in the previous 12 months, despite having completed the primary puppy vaccination course. The majority (89.5%) of these cases occurred in dogs <12 months of age, indicating failure of the primary vaccination course to provide protective immunity (most likely due to interference of the vaccine antigen with maternal antibodies but other reasons are discussed). Extending the age at which the final puppy vaccination is administered might be one of several strategies to consider. The final multivariate model showed that in non-litter CPV cases, risk of death was significantly associated with season of diagnosis (summer) and pedigree type (hounds and non-sporting dogs). Euthanasia in non-litter CPV cases was significantly associated with season of diagnosis (summer), state of residence (Northern Territory/South Australia/Tasmania combined), age (<six months) and vaccination status (unvaccinated and unknown). No significant risk factors associated with death were identified in cases in which there was more than one puppy in a litter infected. The risk factors identified in this study can be used as prognostic indicators for veterinarians faced with CPV cases. The possible explanations for the associations identified and their clinical relevance to CPV case outcome are discussed

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          Most cited references27

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          A real-time PCR assay for rapid detection and quantitation of canine parvovirus type 2 in the feces of dogs.

          We describe a rapid, sensitive and reproducible real-time PCR assay for detecting and quantifying canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) DNA in the feces of dogs with diarrhea. An exogenous internal control was added to control the assay performance from extraction to amplification. The method was demonstrated to be highly specific and sensitive, allowing a precise CPV-2 DNA quantitation over a range of eight orders of magnitude (from 10(2) to 10(9) copies of standard DNA). The reproducibility of the CPV-2 real-time PCR assay was assessed by calculating the coefficients of variation (CV) intra-assay and inter-assay for samples containing amounts of CPV-2 DNA spanning the whole range of the real-time PCR standard curve. Then, fecal specimens from diarrheic dogs were analyzed by hemagglutination (HA), conventional PCR and real-time amplification. Comparison between these different techniques revealed that real-time PCR is more sensitive than HA and conventional gel-based PCR, allowing to detect low viral titers of CPV-2 in infected dogs.
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            Routine vaccination of young puppies and kittens takes place within the first 16 weeks of life, during which time there is considerable change in the immune system of these animals. Newborn pups and kittens must obtain passive immune protection through the ingestion of colostrum within the first hours of life. The timing of early life vaccination is determined by the period of time required for passively acquired immunoglobulin to degrade, thereby permitting an endogenous immune response to be generated by the neonate. In the absence of inhibitory maternally derived antibody (MDA), pups and kittens are capable of mounting a protective immune response at an early age. New generation molecular vaccines appear able to circumvent the inhibitory effects of MDA. In addition to changes in serum immunoglobulin concentrations, there are alterations in the numbers and proportions of blood and tissue leucocytes (particularly CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and B cells) during the first year of life. The qualitative nature of the newborn immune system may also alter from Th2 regulation in utero to Th1 regulation in the neonatal period. Immune function is likely to be genetically determined, and in dogs there is evidence for breed effects on immune function which likely relate to the inheritance of particular haplotypes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. The design of vaccines for young animals of these species must take into account these immunological changes and the potential modulatory effect of vaccines on immune development.
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              Since its emergence in 1978, canine parvoviral enteritis has remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus's capability to "reinvent" itself and evolve into new, more virulent and resistant subspecies. This article reviews current knowledge about the virus, its epidemiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, management, and prevention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Vet Microbiol
                Vet. Microbiol
                Veterinary Microbiology
                Elsevier B.V.
                1 March 2012
                17 August 2012
                1 March 2012
                : 158
                : 3
                : 280-290
                [a ]The University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science, 425 Werombi Road, Camden, NSW 2570, Australia
                [b ]The University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science, B14 – McMaster Building, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
                [c ]Virbac Australia, Milperra, NSW 1891, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 2 9351 1607; fax: +61 2 9351 1618. michael.ward@ 123456sydney.edu.au
                Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 12 September 2011
                : 10 February 2012
                : 23 February 2012

                Veterinary medicine
                canine parvovirus,risk factors,vaccination,epidemiology,surveillance,australia
                Veterinary medicine
                canine parvovirus, risk factors, vaccination, epidemiology, surveillance, australia


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