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      Social Transformation and Violence: Evidence from U.S. Reconstruction

      1 , 2
      Comparative Political Studies
      SAGE Publications

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          Abstract

          How do political actors create and institutionalize revolutionary social transformation, and what are the consequences of their efforts? In this paper, we provide a framework for understanding the conditions under which revolutionary social transformation unfolds and becomes institutionalized over time. We argue that a direct consequence of social transformation and the institutionalization thereof, however, is violence against the revolution’s beneficiaries which can likewise endure over the long-term. We test our arguments using historical, county-level data on post-U.S. Civil War Reconstruction and we supply both quantitative and qualitative evidence for our mechanisms. We ultimately demonstrate that social transformation and violence are often causally linked, not mutually exclusive outcomes, thereby expanding our understanding of how social orders are created and maintained.

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          Most cited references75

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          The Psychology of Prejudice: Ingroup Love and Outgroup Hate?

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            Prejudice as a Response to Perceived Group Threat: Population Composition and Anti-Immigrant and Racial Prejudice in Europe

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              Intergroup bias.

              This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Comparative Political Studies
                Comparative Political Studies
                SAGE Publications
                0010-4140
                1552-3829
                September 2021
                March 07 2021
                September 2021
                : 54
                : 11
                : 1939-1983
                Affiliations
                [1 ]American University, Washington, DC, USA
                [2 ]Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
                Article
                10.1177/0010414021997164
                68f8b89a-e343-49b8-a4ee-35fd0d551ef1
                © 2021

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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