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      Elevated blood plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, TGFβ1, and TNFα associated with high-altitude pulmonary edema in an Indian population

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          Biomarkers are essential to unravel the locked pathophysiology of any disease. This study investigated the role of biomarkers and their interactions with each other and with the clinical parameters to study the physiology of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) in HAPE-patients (HAPE-p) against adapted highlanders (HLs) and healthy sojourners, HAPE-controls (HAPE-c). For this, seven circulatory biomarkers, namely, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), platelet-derived growth factor beta beta, and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured in blood plasma of the three study groups. All the subjects were recruited at ~3,500 m, and clinical features such as arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2), body mass index, and mean arterial pressure were measured. Increased levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, transforming growth factor-beta 1, and TNFα were observed in HAPE-p against the healthy groups, HAPE-c, and HLs ( P<0.0001). CRP levels were decreased in HAPE-p against HAPE-c and HLs ( P<0.0001). There was no significant difference or very marginal difference in the levels of these biomarkers in HAPE-c and HLs ( P>0.01). Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between epinephrine and norepinephrine ( P=4.6E−06) in HAPE-p and positive correlation in HAPE-c ( P=0.004) and HLs ( P=9.78E−07). A positive correlation was observed between TNFα and CRP ( P=0.004) in HAPE-p and a negative correlation in HAPE-c ( P=4.6E−06). SaO 2 correlated negatively with platelet-derived growth factor beta beta (HAPE-p; P=0.05), norepinephrine ( P=0.01), and TNFα ( P=0.005) and positively with CRP (HAPE-c; P=0.02) and norepinephrine (HLs; P=0.04). Body mass index correlated negatively with epinephrine (HAPE-p; P=0.001) and positively with norepinephrine and tyrosine hydroxylase in HAPE-c ( P<0.05). Mean arterial pressure correlated positively with TNFα in HAPE-p and norepinephrine in HLs ( P<0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a positive predictive value for these biomarkers with HAPE (area under the curve >0.70, P<0.05). The results clearly suggest that increased plasma levels of these circulatory biomarkers associated with HAPE.

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          Most cited references 42

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            Hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

            Chronic hypoxic exposure induces changes in the structure of pulmonary arteries, as well as in the biochemical and functional phenotypes of each of the vascular cell types, from the hilum of the lung to the most peripheral vessels in the alveolar wall. The magnitude and the specific profile of the changes depend on the species, sex, and the developmental stage at which the exposure to hypoxia occurred. Further, hypoxia-induced changes are site specific, such that the remodeling process in the large vessels differs from that in the smallest vessels. The cellular and molecular mechanisms vary and depend on the cellular composition of vessels at particular sites along the longitudinal axis of the pulmonary vasculature, as well as on local environmental factors. Each of the resident vascular cell types (ie, endothelial, smooth muscle, adventitial fibroblast) undergo site- and time-dependent alterations in proliferation, matrix protein production, expression of growth factors, cytokines, and receptors, and each resident cell type plays a specific role in the overall remodeling response. In addition, hypoxic exposure induces an inflammatory response within the vessel wall, and the recruited circulating progenitor cells contribute significantly to the structural remodeling and persistent vasoconstriction of the pulmonary circulation. The possibility exists that the lung or lung vessels also contain resident progenitor cells that participate in the remodeling process. Thus the hypoxia-induced remodeling of the pulmonary circulation is a highly complex process where numerous interactive events must be taken into account as we search for newer, more effective therapeutic interventions. This review provides perspectives on each of the aforementioned areas.
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              High altitude increases circulating interleukin-6, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and C-reactive protein.

              Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is associated with but may not be sufficient for the development of high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO). Hypoxia is known to induce an inflammatory response in immune cells and endothelial cells. It has been speculated that hypoxia-induced inflammatory cytokines at high altitude may contribute to the development of HAPO by causing capillary leakage in the lung. We were interested if such an inflammatory response, possibly involved in a later development of HAPO, is detectable at high altitude in individuals without HAPO. We examined the plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in two independent studies: study A, Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, three overnight stays at 3458 m, n=12; study B: Capanna Regina Margherita, Italy, 3 overnight stays at 3647 m and one overnight stay at 4559 m, n=10. In both studies, probands showed symptoms of acute mountain sickness but no signs of HAPO. At the Jungfraujoch, IL-6 increased from 0.1+/-0.03 pg/ml to 2. 0+/-0.5 pg/ml (day 2, P=0.03), IL-1ra from 101+/-21 to 284+/-73 pg/ml (day 2, P=0.01), and CRP from 1.0+/-0.4 to 5.8+/-1.5 micrograms/ml (day 4, P=0.01). At the Capanna Margherita, IL-6 increased from 0. 5+/-0.2 pg/ml to 2.0+/-0.8 pg/ml (P=0.02), IL-1ra from 118+/-25 to 213+/-28 pg/ml (P=0.02), and CRP from 0.4+/-0.03 to 3.5+/-1.1 micrograms/ml (P=0.03). IL-8 was below the detection limit of the ELISA (<25 pg/ml) in both studies. The increase of IL-6 and IL-1ra in response to high altitude was delayed and preceded the increase of CRP. We conclude that: (1) circulating IL-6, IL-1ra and CRP are upregulated in response to hypobaric hypoxic conditions at high altitude, and (2) the moderate systemic increase of these inflammatory markers may reflect considerable local inflammation. The existence and the kinetics of high altitude-induced cytokines found in this study support the hypothesis that inflammation is involved in the development of HAPO. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                08 August 2016
                : 12
                : 1207-1221
                [1 ]Functional Genomics Unit, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi
                [2 ]Department of Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, SNM Hospital, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: MA Qadar Pasha, Functional Genomics Unit, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mall Road, Delhi 110007, India, Tel +91 11 2766 6156, Fax +91 11 2766 7471, Email qpasha@ 123456igib.res.in
                © 2016 Pandey et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                sympathetic nervous system, high-altitude, hape, correlation, biomarkers, adaptation


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