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      Heat stress and the fitness consequences of climate change for terrestrial ectotherms

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      Functional Ecology
      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Ecological and Evolutionary Responses to Recent Climate Change

          Ecological changes in the phenology and distribution of plants and animals are occurring in all well-studied marine, freshwater, and terrestrial groups. These observed changes are heavily biased in the directions predicted from global warming and have been linked to local or regional climate change through correlations between climate and biological variation, field and laboratory experiments, and physiological research. Range-restricted species, particularly polar and mountaintop species, show severe range contractions and have been the first groups in which entire species have gone extinct due to recent climate change. Tropical coral reefs and amphibians have been most negatively affected. Predator-prey and plant-insect interactions have been disrupted when interacting species have responded differently to warming. Evolutionary adaptations to warmer conditions have occurred in the interiors of species' ranges, and resource use and dispersal have evolved rapidly at expanding range margins. Observed genetic shifts modulate local effects of climate change, but there is little evidence that they will mitigate negative effects at the species level.
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            A high-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas

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              Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Functional Ecology
                Funct Ecol
                Wiley-Blackwell
                02698463
                December 2013
                December 2013
                : 27
                : 6
                : 1415-1423
                Article
                10.1111/1365-2435.12145
                691577eb-7743-4543-9504-12463565b6d0
                © 2013

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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