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      Relation of Indirect Vasodilator Use to Prognosis in Patients with Chronic Severe Mitral Regurgitation


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          Objectives: The relation of indirect vasodilator use to cardiac events (CE) is undefined for chronic severe nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR). The aim of this study was to resolve this knowledge deficiency. Methods: Data from 52 consecutive patients in our prospective natural history study with isolated chronic severe nonischemic MR were assessed post hoc over 19 years to examine the relation of indirect vasodilator use to subsequent CE (death or indications for valve surgery). At entry, no patient had surgical indications, 14% had hypertension (HTN) and 7 chronically received vasodilators (5 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, 1 receptor blocker and 1 α-adrenergic blocker). CE differences were assessed by log-rank comparison of Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: During follow-up, CE included sudden death (1 patient), heart failure (7 patients), atrial fibrillation (6 patients), left ventricular (LV) systolic dimension >4.5 cm (12 patients), LV ejection fraction (EF) <60% (7 patients), right ventricular EF <35% (2 patients) and combination CE (7 patients). Overall, vasodilator use did not predict CE (not significant). However, patients without HTN had higher CE rates with vasodilators than without (p = 0.007), while those with HTN and vasodilators had lower CE rates than those without vasodilators (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Vasodilator use appears to confer no survival benefit in patients with chronic severe MR. The small number of patients with HTN precludes conclusions about modulation of vasodilator effect by HTN. Randomized trials are needed to conclusively evaluate this association.

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          Prediction of indications for valve replacement among asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with chronic aortic regurgitation and normal left ventricular performance.

          Optimal criteria for valve replacement are unclear in asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) and normal left ventricular (LV) performance at rest. Moreover, previous studies have not assessed the prognostic capacity of load-adjusted LV performance ("contractility") variables, which may be fundamentally related to clinical state. Therefore, 18 years ago, we set out to test prospectively the hypothesis that objective noninvasive measures of LV size and performance and, specifically, of load-adjusted variables, assessed at rest and during exercise (ex), could predict the development of currently accepted indications for operation for AR.
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            Natural history of the asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic patient with severe mitral regurgitation secondary to mitral valve prolapse and normal right and left ventricular performance.

            The natural history of patients with severe nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) from mitral valve prolapse, who are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic and have normal right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) performance, has not been evaluated previously. To define natural history in this population and to determine if any objective variables could predict disease progression, 31 patients were followed annually with severe MR due to prolapse, who at entry were asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic and had normal RV and LV performance at rest by radionuclide cineangiography. Average follow-up in patients not reaching surgical end point was 4.7 years. The Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates were used to determine the rate of progression to either "operable" symptoms or to previously defined "high risk" ventricular performance descriptors, if the latter occurred first. Univariate comparisons of Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to define prognostically important variables measured at entry. Fourteen patients developed symptoms warranting referral for operation; none developed high-risk ventricular performance descriptors. The annual end point risk was 10.3%. Of all covariates, only change in RV ejection fraction from rest to exercise was significantly associated with disease progression. Annual risk of progression to surgical end point was 4.9% in the subgroup in which this parameter increased with exercise and 14.7% in the subgroup without an increase (p = 0.04). Patients with severe MR due to mitral valve prolapse, who are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic with normal ventricular performance, can be expected to progress to surgical indications at an annual rate of 10.3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              Angiotensin II receptor blockade does not improve left ventricular function andremodeling in subacute mitral regurgitation in the dog


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                November 2014
                15 November 2014
                : 129
                : 4
                : 262-266
                aHoward Gilman Institute for Valvular Heart Diseases, State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., and bDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, N.Y., USA
                Author notes
                *Phyllis G. Supino, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203 (USA), E-Mail phyllis.supino@downstate.edu
                368797 Cardiology 2014;129:262-266
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                : 04 August 2014
                : 01 October 2014
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 5
                Short Communication

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Systolic hypertension,Mitral regurgitation,Vasodilator therapy


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