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      Relation of Indirect Vasodilator Use to Prognosis in Patients with Chronic Severe Mitral Regurgitation

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          Abstract

          Objectives: The relation of indirect vasodilator use to cardiac events (CE) is undefined for chronic severe nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR). The aim of this study was to resolve this knowledge deficiency. Methods: Data from 52 consecutive patients in our prospective natural history study with isolated chronic severe nonischemic MR were assessed post hoc over 19 years to examine the relation of indirect vasodilator use to subsequent CE (death or indications for valve surgery). At entry, no patient had surgical indications, 14% had hypertension (HTN) and 7 chronically received vasodilators (5 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, 1 receptor blocker and 1 α-adrenergic blocker). CE differences were assessed by log-rank comparison of Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: During follow-up, CE included sudden death (1 patient), heart failure (7 patients), atrial fibrillation (6 patients), left ventricular (LV) systolic dimension >4.5 cm (12 patients), LV ejection fraction (EF) <60% (7 patients), right ventricular EF <35% (2 patients) and combination CE (7 patients). Overall, vasodilator use did not predict CE (not significant). However, patients without HTN had higher CE rates with vasodilators than without (p = 0.007), while those with HTN and vasodilators had lower CE rates than those without vasodilators (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Vasodilator use appears to confer no survival benefit in patients with chronic severe MR. The small number of patients with HTN precludes conclusions about modulation of vasodilator effect by HTN. Randomized trials are needed to conclusively evaluate this association.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Natural history of the asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic patient with severe mitral regurgitation secondary to mitral valve prolapse and normal right and left ventricular performance.

          The natural history of patients with severe nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) from mitral valve prolapse, who are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic and have normal right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) performance, has not been evaluated previously. To define natural history in this population and to determine if any objective variables could predict disease progression, 31 patients were followed annually with severe MR due to prolapse, who at entry were asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic and had normal RV and LV performance at rest by radionuclide cineangiography. Average follow-up in patients not reaching surgical end point was 4.7 years. The Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates were used to determine the rate of progression to either "operable" symptoms or to previously defined "high risk" ventricular performance descriptors, if the latter occurred first. Univariate comparisons of Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to define prognostically important variables measured at entry. Fourteen patients developed symptoms warranting referral for operation; none developed high-risk ventricular performance descriptors. The annual end point risk was 10.3%. Of all covariates, only change in RV ejection fraction from rest to exercise was significantly associated with disease progression. Annual risk of progression to surgical end point was 4.9% in the subgroup in which this parameter increased with exercise and 14.7% in the subgroup without an increase (p = 0.04). Patients with severe MR due to mitral valve prolapse, who are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic with normal ventricular performance, can be expected to progress to surgical indications at an annual rate of 10.3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Prediction of indications for valve replacement among asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with chronic aortic regurgitation and normal left ventricular performance.

            Optimal criteria for valve replacement are unclear in asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) and normal left ventricular (LV) performance at rest. Moreover, previous studies have not assessed the prognostic capacity of load-adjusted LV performance ("contractility") variables, which may be fundamentally related to clinical state. Therefore, 18 years ago, we set out to test prospectively the hypothesis that objective noninvasive measures of LV size and performance and, specifically, of load-adjusted variables, assessed at rest and during exercise (ex), could predict the development of currently accepted indications for operation for AR.
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              Practice variation among cardiovascular physicians in management of patients with mitral regurgitation.

              Severe mitral regurgitation (MR), whether isolated or with coronary disease, was associated with adverse clinical outcomes. However, clinician practice is characterized by different thresholds for treatment. No data exist that described current practice patterns, factors that affected these patterns, or whether physicians followed American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines in clinical practice for patients with MR. Cardiovascular specialists were surveyed using e-mail, and 1,076 physicians completed the survey (71% response rate), including adult cardiologists (94%) and cardiac surgeons (5%) who practiced in the United States (78%), Canada (5%), and other nations (17%). Wide variations were noted regarding rates of referral of asymptomatic patients with severe MR for mitral valve repair. There was geographic and specialty-dependent heterogeneity in practice. Most physicians (65%) used medications to delay the progression of MR in the absence of guideline recommendations. A minority (28%) of respondents routinely quantitated MR by calculating the effective regurgitant orifice area. In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, MR severity was not assessed before the procedure by 1 in 4 providers, and the presence of MR frequently did not affect clinical care decisions. In conclusion, considerable variability existed in the clinical management of MR, particularly regarding referral of asymptomatic patients for mitral valve reparative surgery. Medications were frequently used to treat asymptomatic patients with MR in the absence of evidence of pharmacologic efficacy. MR was frequently not considered a relevant factor before treatment of patients with coexistent coronary artery disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2014
                November 2014
                15 November 2014
                : 129
                : 4
                : 262-266
                Affiliations
                aHoward Gilman Institute for Valvular Heart Diseases, State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., and bDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, N.Y., USA
                Author notes
                *Phyllis G. Supino, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203 (USA), E-Mail phyllis.supino@downstate.edu
                Article
                368797 Cardiology 2014;129:262-266
                10.1159/000368797
                25402846
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Short Communication

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