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      Functional Diversification and Specialization of Cytosolic 70-kDa Heat Shock Proteins

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          Abstract

          A fundamental question in molecular evolution is how protein functional differentiation alters the ability of cells and organisms to cope with stress and survive. To answer this question we used two paralogous Hsp70s from mouse and explored whether these highly similar cytosolic molecular chaperones, which apart their temporal expression have been considered functionally interchangeable, are differentiated with respect to their lipid-binding function. We demonstrate that the two proteins bind to diverse lipids with different affinities and therefore are functionally specialized. The observed lipid-binding patterns may be related with the ability of both Hsp70s to induce cell death by binding to a particular plasma-membrane lipid, and the potential of only one of them to promote cell survival by binding to a specific lysosomal-membrane lipid. These observations reveal that two seemingly identical proteins differentially modulate cellular adaptation and survival by having acquired specialized functions via sequence divergence. Therefore, this study provides an evolutionary paradigm, where promiscuity, specificity, sub- and neo-functionalization orchestrate one of the most conserved systems in nature, the cellular stress-response.

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          Most cited references 71

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          MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

          We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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            Membrane lipids: where they are and how they behave.

            Throughout the biological world, a 30 A hydrophobic film typically delimits the environments that serve as the margin between life and death for individual cells. Biochemical and biophysical findings have provided a detailed model of the composition and structure of membranes, which includes levels of dynamic organization both across the lipid bilayer (lipid asymmetry) and in the lateral dimension (lipid domains) of membranes. How do cells apply anabolic and catabolic enzymes, translocases and transporters, plus the intrinsic physical phase behaviour of lipids and their interactions with membrane proteins, to create the unique compositions and multiple functionalities of their individual membranes?
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              NCBI BLAST: a better web interface

              Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence similarity search program. The public interface of BLAST, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast, at the NCBI website has recently been reengineered to improve usability and performance. Key new features include simplified search forms, improved navigation, a list of recent BLAST results, saved search strategies and a documentation directory. Here, we describe the BLAST web application's new features, explain design decisions and outline plans for future improvement.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biological Science, Center for Applied Biotechnology Studies, and Center for Computational and Applied Mathematics, California State University , Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92834
                [2 ]Center for Mitochondrial and Epigenomic Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute , Philadelphia, PA
                Author notes
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                20 March 2015
                2015
                : 5
                srep09363
                10.1038/srep09363
                4366816
                25791537
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder in order to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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