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      Rapid SNP Discovery and Genetic Mapping Using Sequenced RAD Markers

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          Abstract

          Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and genotyping are essential to genetic mapping. There remains a need for a simple, inexpensive platform that allows high-density SNP discovery and genotyping in large populations. Here we describe the sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) tags, which identified more than 13,000 SNPs, and mapped three traits in two model organisms, using less than half the capacity of one Illumina sequencing run. We demonstrated that different marker densities can be attained by choice of restriction enzyme. Furthermore, we developed a barcoding system for sample multiplexing and fine mapped the genetic basis of lateral plate armor loss in threespine stickleback by identifying recombinant breakpoints in F 2 individuals. Barcoding also facilitated mapping of a second trait, a reduction of pelvic structure, by in silico re-sorting of individuals. To further demonstrate the ease of the RAD sequencing approach we identified polymorphic markers and mapped an induced mutation in Neurospora crassa. Sequencing of RAD markers is an integrated platform for SNP discovery and genotyping. This approach should be widely applicable to genetic mapping in a variety of organisms.

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          Most cited references 16

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          AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting.

          A novel DNA fingerprinting technique called AFLP is described. The AFLP technique is based on the selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments from a total digest of genomic DNA. The technique involves three steps: (i) restriction of the DNA and ligation of oligonucleotide adapters, (ii) selective amplification of sets of restriction fragments, and (iii) gel analysis of the amplified fragments. PCR amplification of restriction fragments is achieved by using the adapter and restriction site sequence as target sites for primer annealing. The selective amplification is achieved by the use of primers that extend into the restriction fragments, amplifying only those fragments in which the primer extensions match the nucleotides flanking the restriction sites. Using this method, sets of restriction fragments may be visualized by PCR without knowledge of nucleotide sequence. The method allows the specific co-amplification of high numbers of restriction fragments. The number of fragments that can be analyzed simultaneously, however, is dependent on the resolution of the detection system. Typically 50-100 restriction fragments are amplified and detected on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. The AFLP technique provides a novel and very powerful DNA fingerprinting technique for DNAs of any origin or complexity.
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            Widespread parallel evolution in sticklebacks by repeated fixation of Ectodysplasin alleles.

            Major phenotypic changes evolve in parallel in nature by molecular mechanisms that are largely unknown. Here, we use positional cloning methods to identify the major chromosome locus controlling armor plate patterning in wild threespine sticklebacks. Mapping, sequencing, and transgenic studies show that the Ectodysplasin (EDA) signaling pathway plays a key role in evolutionary change in natural populations and that parallel evolution of stickleback low-plated phenotypes at most freshwater locations around the world has occurred by repeated selection of Eda alleles derived from an ancestral low-plated haplotype that first appeared more than two million years ago. Members of this clade of low-plated alleles are present at low frequencies in marine fish, which suggests that standing genetic variation can provide a molecular basis for rapid, parallel evolution of dramatic phenotypic change in nature.
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              SNP discovery and allele frequency estimation by deep sequencing of reduced representation libraries.

              High-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have revolutionized the ability of genome-wide association studies to detect genomic regions harboring sequence variants that affect complex traits. Extensive numbers of validated SNPs with known allele frequencies are essential to construct genotyping assays with broad utility. We describe an economical, efficient, single-step method for SNP discovery, validation and characterization that uses deep sequencing of reduced representation libraries (RRLs) from specified target populations. Using nearly 50 million sequences generated on an Illumina Genome Analyzer from DNA of 66 cattle representing three populations, we identified 62,042 putative SNPs and predicted their allele frequencies. Genotype data for these 66 individuals validated 92% of 23,357 selected genome-wide SNPs, with a genotypic and sequence allele frequency correlation of r = 0.67. This approach for simultaneous de novo discovery of high-quality SNPs and population characterization of allele frequencies may be applied to any species with at least a partially sequenced genome.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2008
                13 October 2008
                : 3
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States of America
                [2 ]Floragenex, Eugene, Oregon, United States of America
                [3 ]The Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States of America
                Washington University, United States of America
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: NAB PDE TSA ZAL ES WC EAJ. Performed the experiments: NAB PDE MCC ALS. Analyzed the data: NAB PDE ZAL EAJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MCC ALS ES WC EAJ. Wrote the paper: NAB PDE TSA ZAL ES WC EAJ.

                Article
                08-PONE-RA-05318R1
                10.1371/journal.pone.0003376
                2557064
                18852878
                Baird et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Article
                Genetics and Genomics
                Evolutionary Biology/Genomics
                Genetics and Genomics/Complex Traits

                Uncategorized

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