Insulin-resistance induces cerebrovascular dysfunction and increases the risk for stroke. We investigated whether rosuvastatin (RSV), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, can reverse reduced cerebrovascular responsiveness in insulin-resistant rats. Dilator responses of the basilar artery (BA) were examined after 1-day or 4-wk RSV (2 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) treatment in anesthetized 12-wk-old insulin-resistant Zucker obese (ZO) and lean (ZL) rats by using a cranial window preparation. Vehicle-treated ZO rats had significantly higher fasting insulin, total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) levels compared with ZL rats. In addition, in the ZO rats, dilator responses of the BA to acetylcholine, iloprost, cromakalim, and potassium chloride were significantly reduced when compared with ZL rats. One-day RSV treatment improved dilator responses of the ZO BAs without altering lipid levels. Four-week RSV treatment lowered both TC and TG by 30% and also improved dilator responses of the ZO BAs, although without additional effects compared with the 1-day RSV treatment. NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent superoxide production was significantly higher in the cerebral arteries of vehicle-treated ZO rats compared with ZL rats, but both 1-day and 4-wk RSV treatments normalized elevated superoxide levels in the ZO arteries. These findings demonstrate that RSV improves cerebrovascular function in insulin-resistance independently from its lipid-lowering effect by the inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase.