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      Domain-specific cognitive impairment in patients with COPD and control subjects

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          Impaired cognitive function is increasingly recognized in COPD. Yet, the prevalence of cognitive impairment in specific cognitive domains in COPD has been poorly studied. The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to compare the prevalence of domain-specific cognitive impairment between patients with COPD and non-COPD controls. A neuropsychological assessment was administered in 90 stable COPD patients and 90 non-COPD controls with comparable smoking status, age, and level of education. Six core tests from the Maastricht Aging Study were used to assess general cognitive impairment. By using Z-scores, compound scores were constructed for the following domains: psychomotor speed, planning, working memory, verbal memory, and cognitive flexibility. General cognitive impairment and domain-specific cognitive impairment were compared between COPD patients and controls after correction for comorbidities using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. General cognitive impairment was found in 56.7% of patients with COPD and in 13.3% of controls. Deficits in the following domains were more often present in patients with COPD after correction for comorbidities: psychomotor speed (17.8% vs 3.3%; P<0.001), planning (17.8% vs 1.1%; P<0.001), and cognitive flexibility (43.3% vs 12.2%; P<0.001). General cognitive impairment and impairments in the domains psychomotor speed, planning, and cognitive flexibility affect the COPD patients more than their matched controls.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).

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            Glasgow supported self-management trial (GSuST) for patients with moderate to severe COPD: randomised controlled trial

            Objective To determine whether supported self management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can reduce hospital readmissions in the United Kingdom. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Community based intervention in the west of Scotland. Participants Patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of COPD. Intervention Participants in the intervention group were trained to detect and treat exacerbations promptly, with ongoing support for 12 months. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was hospital readmissions and deaths due to COPD assessed by record linkage of Scottish Morbidity Records; health related quality of life measures were secondary outcomes. Results 464 patients were randomised, stratified by age, sex, per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second, recent pulmonary rehabilitation attendance, smoking status, deprivation category of area of residence, and previous COPD admissions. No difference was found in COPD admissions or death (111/232 (48%) v 108/232 (47%); hazard ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.38). Return of health related quality of life questionnaires was poor (n=265; 57%), so that no useful conclusions could be made from these data. Pre-planned subgroup analysis showed no differential benefit in the primary outcome relating to disease severity or demographic variables. In an exploratory analysis, 42% (75/150) of patients in the intervention group were classified as successful self managers at study exit, from review of appropriateness of use of self management therapy. Predictors of successful self management on stepwise regression were younger age (P=0.012) and living with others (P=0.010). COPD readmissions/deaths were reduced in successful self managers compared with unsuccessful self managers (20/75 (27%) v 51/105 (49%); hazard ratio 0.44, 0.25 to 0.76; P=0.003). Conclusion Supported self management had no effect on time to first readmission or death with COPD. Exploratory subgroup analysis identified a minority of participants who learnt to self manage; this group had a significantly reduced risk of COPD readmission, were younger, and were more likely to be living with others. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT 00706303.
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              Neuropsychologic findings in hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              As part of a six-center clinical trial of the effectiveness of continuous v nocturnal oxygen in the management of hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we performed detailed neuropsychologic assessments of these patients prior to their beginning treatment. The 203 patients (age, 65 years; Pao2, 51 mm Hg; forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 0.74 L) performed significantly worse than controls on virtually all neuropsychologic tests. Moderate to severe test impairment suggestive of cerebral dysfunction was found in 42% of the patients, as compared with 14% of controls. Higher cognitive functions (abstracting ability, complex perceptual-motor integration) were most severely affected, although half the patients also showed decrements in motor speed, strength, and coordination. Low-order significant inverse correlations were found between neuropsychologic impairment and Pao2, resting arterial oxygen saturation and hemoglobin levels and maximum work. It is concluded that cerebral disturbance is common in hypoxemic COPD and may be related in part to decreased availability of oxygen to the brain.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                19 December 2016
                : 12
                : 1-11
                [1 ]Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Centre of Expertise for Chronic Organ Failure, Horn
                [2 ]Department of Medical Psychology, Maastricht UMC+/School for Mental Health and Neurosciences (MHeNS)
                [3 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht UMC+, Maastricht, the Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Fiona AHM Cleutjens, Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Centre of Expertise for Chronic Organ Failure, Hornerheide 1, 6085 NM Horn, the Netherlands, Tel +31 475 587 606, Fax +31 475 587 592, Email fionacleutjens@
                © 2017 Cleutjens et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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