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      Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting with Bilateral Orbital Apex Syndrome

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          Abstract

          We report a rare case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) presenting with bilateral orbital apex syndrome (OAS). A 73-year-old woman with a history of endoscopic sinus surgery for ethmoidal sinusitis experienced a sudden decrease in visual acuity (VA) of both eyes. At the initial examination, her VA had decreased to 0.01 in the right eye and 0.03 in the left eye, and eye movement in both eyes was mildly limited in all directions. Visual field tests of both eyes showed a large central scotoma. Laboratory tests revealed an elevation of myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. Facial computed tomography demonstrated a thickened mucosal membrane in the entire ethmoidal sinus, and the posterosuperior walls of Onodi cells filled with infiltrative lesions had thinned. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed severe inflammation in the orbital apex. From these clinical findings, the patient was diagnosed with GPA presenting with OAS associated with ethmoid sinusitis. Emergent endoscopic sinus surgery was performed for biopsy and debridement of the ethmoidal and sphenoid sinusitis to decompress the optic nerve. One day after endoscopic sinus surgery, the patient’s VA and visual field were improved, and steroid pulse therapy was commenced postoperatively. Four days later, VA had recovered to 1.0 in both eyes, and eye movement and visual field had were improved. Although OAS is a rare manifestation, early surgical treatment should be considered when the orbital lesion presents as risk of rapid deterioration of visual function in patients with GPA.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Wegener granulomatosis: an analysis of 158 patients.

           Gary Hoffman (1992)
          To prospectively study the clinical features, pathophysiology, treatment and prognosis of Wegener granulomatosis. Of the 180 patients with Wegener granulomatosis referred to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases during the past 24 years, 158 have been followed for 6 months to 24 years (a total of 1229 patient-years). Characteristics of clinical presentation, surgical pathology, course of illness, laboratory and radiographic findings, and the results of medical and surgical treatment have been recorded in a computer-based information retrieval system. The Warren Magnuson Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health. Men and women were equally represented; 97% of patients were white, and 85% were more than 19 years of age. The mean period of follow-up was 8 years. One hundred and thirty-three patients (84%) received "standard" therapy with daily low-dose cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids. Eight (5.0%) received only low-dose cyclophosphamide. Six (4.0%) never received cyclophosphamide and were treated with other cytotoxic agents and glucocorticoids. Ten patients (6.0%) were treated with only glucocorticoids. Ninety-one percent of patients experienced marked improvement, and 75% achieved complete remission. Fifty percent of remissions were associated with one or more relapses. Of 99 patients followed for greater than 5 years, 44% had remissions of greater than 5 years duration. Thirteen percent of patients died of Wegener granulomatosis, treatment-related causes, or both. Almost all patients had serious morbidity from irreversible features of their disease (86%) or side effects of treatment (42%). The course of Wegener granulomatosis has been dramatically improved by daily treatment with cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids. Nonetheless, disease- and treatment-related morbidity is often profound. Alternative forms of therapy have not yet achieved the high rates of remission induction and successful maintenance that have been reported with daily cyclophosphamide treatment. Despite continued therapeutic success with cyclophosphamide, our long-term follow-up of patients with Wegener granulomatosis has led to increasing concerns about toxicity resulting from prolonged cyclophosphamide therapy and has encouraged investigation of other therapeutic regimens.
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            Wegener's granulomatosis: prospective clinical and therapeutic experience with 85 patients for 21 years.

            Eighty-five patients with Wegener's granulomatosis were studied for 21 years at the National Institutes of Health. Patients were treated with a protocol consisting of cyclophosphamide, 2 mg/kg body weight d, together with prednisone, 1 mg/kg body weight d, followed by conversion of the prednisone to an alternate-day regimen. Complete remissions were achieved in 79 of 85 patients (93%). The mean duration of remission for living patients was 48.2 (+/- 3.6) months. Twenty-three patients are off all therapy for a mean duration of 35.3 (+/- 6.3) months without therapy. This study provides a prospective experience with Wegener's granulomatosis and shows that long-term remissions can be induced and maintained in an extremely high number of patients by the combination of daily cyclophosphamide and alternate-day prednisone therapy.
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              Development and validation of a consensus methodology for the classification of the ANCA-associated vasculitides and polyarteritis nodosa for epidemiological studies.

              The classification of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) and polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) for epidemiology studies is confusing. The existing schemes such as American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, Chapel Hill Consensus Conference (CHCC) definitions and Lanham criteria produce overlapping and conflicting classifications, making it difficult to compare incidence figures. To develop a consensus method of using these criteria and definitions for epidemiological studies to permit comparison without confounding by classification. A stepwise algorithm was developed by consensus between a group of doctors interested in the epidemiology of vasculitis. The aim was to categorise patients with Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) and PAN into single clinically relevant categories. The ACR and Lanham criteria for CSS, and ACR criteria for Wegener's granulomatosis were applied first, as these were considered to be the most specific. Surrogate markers for Wegener's granulomatosis were included to distinguish Wegener's granulomatosis from MPA. MPA was classified using the CHCC definition and surrogate markers for renal vasculitis. Finally, PAN was classified using the CHCC definition. The algorithm was validated by application to 20 cases from each centre and 99 from a single centre, followed by a paper case exercise. A four-step algorithm was devised. It successfully categorises patients into a single classification. There was good correlation between observers in the paper case exercise (91.5%; unweighted kappa = 0.886). The algorithm achieves its aim of reliably classifying patients into a single category. The use of the algorithm in epidemiology studies should permit comparison between geographical areas.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                COP
                COP
                10.1159/issn.1663-2699
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2699
                2021
                January - April 2021
                07 January 2021
                : 12
                : 1
                : 32-40
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Ophthalmology, Department of Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
                bDivision of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
                Author notes
                *Takuji Kurimoto, Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan), kuri1201@med.kobe-u.ac.jp
                Article
                510329 PMC7879294 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2021;12:32–40
                10.1159/000510329
                PMC7879294
                33613248
                © 2021 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Case Report

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