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      "Water-in-salt" electrolyte enables high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion chemistries.

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          Abstract

          Lithium-ion batteries raise safety, environmental, and cost concerns, which mostly arise from their nonaqueous electrolytes. The use of aqueous alternatives is limited by their narrow electrochemical stability window (1.23 volts), which sets an intrinsic limit on the practical voltage and energy output. We report a highly concentrated aqueous electrolyte whose window was expanded to ~3.0 volts with the formation of an electrode-electrolyte interphase. A full lithium-ion battery of 2.3 volts using such an aqueous electrolyte was demonstrated to cycle up to 1000 times, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency at both low (0.15 coulomb) and high (4.5 coulombs) discharge and charge rates.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Science
          Science (New York, N.Y.)
          1095-9203
          0036-8075
          Nov 20 2015
          : 350
          : 6263
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740, USA.
          [2 ] Electrochemistry Branch, Sensor and Electron Devices Directorate, Power and Energy Division, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783, USA.
          [3 ] Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740, USA. cswang@umd.edu conrad.k.xu.civ@mail.mil.
          [4 ] Electrochemistry Branch, Sensor and Electron Devices Directorate, Power and Energy Division, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783, USA. cswang@umd.edu conrad.k.xu.civ@mail.mil.
          Article
          350/6263/938
          10.1126/science.aab1595
          26586759
          Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

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