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      Oatmeal-Containing Breakfast is Associated with Better Diet Quality and Higher Intake of Key Food Groups and Nutrients Compared to Other Breakfasts in Children

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          Abstract

          Oatmeal is a whole grain (WG) food rich in fiber and other nutrients. The study objective was to compare diet quality and nutrient intake of children consuming oatmeal breakfasts to those of children consuming other breakfasts using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. Dietary intake data from 5876 children aged 2–18 years were divided by breakfast food consumption: oatmeal breakfasts, “Doughnuts, sweet rolls, pastries”, “Pancakes, waffles, French toast”, “Eggs and omelets”, “Ready-to-eat cereal, lower sugar”, and “Ready-to-eat cereal, higher sugar” were used to assess diet quality and intake of food groups and nutrients using the USDA Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), Food Patterns Equivalents Database, and Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, respectively. As compared to consumers of other breakfasts or breakfast skippers, oatmeal consumers had consistently higher diet quality (4–16 points higher HEI 2015 total score, p < 0.05), higher WG intake (0.6–1.6 oz eq. higher, p < 0.05), and higher fiber and magnesium intakes compared to consumers of most other breakfasts or breakfast skippers. The results show that children consuming oatmeal breakfasts have better diet quality and increased intake of key nutrients compared to breakfast skippers and other breakfast consumers and suggest oatmeal may represent an important component of a healthy childhood diet.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Development and validation of the nutrient-rich foods index: a tool to measure nutritional quality of foods.

          Ranking and/or classifying foods based on their nutrient composition is known as nutrient profiling. Nutrition quality indices need to be tested and validated against quality of the total diet. A family of nutrient-rich foods (NRF) indices were validated against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an accepted measure of diet quality. All foods consumed by participants in NHANES 1999-2002 studies were scored using NRFn.3 (where n = 6-15) indices based on unweighted sums, means, and ratios of percent daily values (DV) for nutrients to encourage (n) and for nutrients to limit (LIM) (3). Individual food scores were calculated based on 100 kcal (418 kJ) and FDA serving sizes [reference amounts customarily consumed (RACC)]. Energy-weighted food-based scores per person were then regressed against HEI, adjusting for gender, age, and ethnicity. The measure of index performance was the percentage of variation in HEI (R2) explained by each NRF score. NRF indices based on both nutrients to encourage and LIM performed better than indices based on LIM only. Maximum variance in HEI was explained using 6 or 9 nutrients to encourage; index performance actually declined with the inclusion of additional vitamins and minerals. NRF indices based on 100 kcal (418 kJ) performed similarly to indices based on RACC. Algorithms based on sums or means of nutrient DV performed better than ratio-based scores. The NRF9.3 index, based on 9 nutrients to encourage and 3 LIM per RACC and per 100 kcal, explained the highest percentage of variation from HEI and could be readily expected to rank foods based on nutrient density.
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            Consumption of cereal fiber, mixtures of whole grains and bran, and whole grains and risk reduction in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.

            Studies of whole grain and chronic disease have often included bran-enriched foods and other ingredients that do not meet the current definition of whole grains. Therefore, we assessed the literature to test whether whole grains alone had benefits on these diseases. The objective was to assess the contribution of bran or cereal fiber on the impact of whole grains on the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and body weight measures, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in human studies as the basis for establishing an American Society for Nutrition (ASN) position on this subject. We performed a comprehensive PubMed search of human studies published from 1965 to December 2010. Most whole-grain studies included mixtures of whole grains and foods with ≥25% bran. Prospective studies consistently showed a reduced risk of T2D with high intakes of cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran. For body weight, a limited number of prospective studies on cereal fiber and whole grains reported small but significant reductions in weight gain. For CVD, studies found reduced risk with high intakes of cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran. The ASN position, based on the current state of the science, is that consumption of foods rich in cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran is modestly associated with a reduced risk of obesity, T2D, and CVD. The data for whole grains alone are limited primarily because of varying definitions among epidemiologic studies of what, and how much, was included in that food category.
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              Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

              Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                27 April 2019
                May 2019
                : 11
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Nutrition Impact LLC, Battle Creek, MI 49014, USA
                [2 ]PepsiCo R&D Nutrition, Chicago, IL 60661, USA; Mary.Brauchla@ 123456pepsico.com (M.B.); Lisa.Fleige@ 123456pepsico.com (L.F.); YiFang.Chu@ 123456pepsico.com (Y.C.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: vic3rd@ 123456aol.com ; Tel.: +1-269-962-0448
                Article
                nutrients-11-00964
                10.3390/nu11050964
                6567219
                31035541
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                healthy eating index, beta-glucan, soluble fiber, dietary fiber, whole grain

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