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      Hormone analysis and candidate genes identification associated with seed size in Camellia oleifera

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          Abstract

          Camellia oleifera is an important woody oil species in China. Its seed oil has been widely used as a cooking oil. Seed size is a crucial factor influencing the yield of seed oil. In this study, the horizontal diameter, vertical diameter and volume of C. oleifera seeds showed a rapid growth tendency from 235 days after pollination (DAP) to 258 DAP but had a slight increase at seed maturity. During seed development, the expression of genes related to cell proliferation and expansion differ greatly. Auxin plays an important role in C. oleifera seeds; YUC4 and IAA17 were significantly downregulated. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis screened 21 hub transcription factors for C. oleifera seed horizontal diameter, vertical diameter and volume. Among them, SPL4 was significantly decreased and associated with all these three traits, while ABI4 and YAB1 were significantly increased and associated with horizontal diameter of C. oleifera seeds. Additionally, KLU significantly decreased (2040-fold). Collectively, our data advances the knowledge of factors related to seed size and provides a theoretical basis for improving the yield of C. oleifera seeds.

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          Mechanism of CDK activation revealed by the structure of a cyclinA-CDK2 complex.

          The crystal structure of the human cyclinA-cyclin-dependent kinase2 (CDK2)-ATP complex has been determined at 2.3 A resolution. CyclinA binds to one side of CDK2's catalytic cleft, inducing large conformational changes in its PSTAIRE helix and T-loop. These changes activate the kinase by realigning active site residues and relieving the steric blockade at the entrance of the catalytic cleft.
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            The XTH family of enzymes involved in xyloglucan endotransglucosylation and endohydrolysis: current perspectives and a new unifying nomenclature.

            The polysaccharide xyloglucan is thought to play an important structural role in the primary cell wall of dicotyledons. Accordingly, there is considerable interest in understanding the biochemical basis and regulation of xyloglucan metabolism, and research over the last 16 years has identified a large family of cell wall proteins that specifically catalyze xyloglucan endohydrolysis and/or endotransglucosylation. However, a confusing and contradictory series of nomenclatures has emerged in the literature, of which xyloglucan endotransglycosylases (XETs) and endoxyloglucan transferases (EXGTs) are just two examples, to describe members of essentially the same class of genes/proteins. The completion of the first plant genome sequencing projects has revealed the full extent of this gene family and so this is an opportune time to resolve the many discrepancies in the database that include different names being assigned to the same gene. Following consultation with members of the scientific community involved in plant cell wall research, we propose a new unifying nomenclature that conveys an accurate description of the spectrum of biochemical activities that cumulative research has shown are catalyzed by these enzymes. Thus, a member of this class of genes/proteins will be referred to as a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH). The two known activities of XTH proteins are referred to enzymologically as xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET, which is hereby re-defined) activity and xyloglucan endohydrolase (XEH) activity. This review provides a summary of the biochemical and functional diversity of XTHs, including an overview of the structure and organization of the Arabidopsis XTH gene family, and highlights the potentially important roles that XTHs appear to play in numerous examples of plant growth and development.
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              The AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 gene of Arabidopsis links auxin signalling, cell division, and the size of seeds and other organs.

              Control of seed size involves complex interactions among the zygotic embryo and endosperm, the maternally derived seed coat, and the parent plant. Here we describe a mutant in Arabidopsis, megaintegumenta (mnt), in which seed size and weight are dramatically increased. One factor in this is extra cell division in the integuments surrounding mnt mutant ovules, leading to the formation of enlarged seed coats. Unusually for integument mutants, mnt does not impair female fertility. The mnt lesion also has pleiotropic effects on vegetative and floral development, causing extra cell division and expansion in many organs. mnt was identified as a mutant allele of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 (ARF2), a member of a family of transcription factors that mediate gene expression in response to auxin. The mutant phenotype and gene expression studies described here provide evidence that MNT/ARF2 is a repressor of cell division and organ growth. The mutant phenotype also illustrates the importance of growth of the ovule before fertilization in determining final size of the seed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: ValidationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: Supervision
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Methodology
                Role: InvestigationRole: Project administrationRole: Resources
                Role: Data curationRole: MethodologyRole: Software
                Role: Data curationRole: Software
                Role: Data curationRole: Software
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Journal
                R Soc Open Sci
                R Soc Open Sci
                RSOS
                royopensci
                Royal Society Open Science
                The Royal Society
                2054-5703
                March 30, 2022
                March 2022
                March 30, 2022
                : 9
                : 3
                : 211138
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Key Laboratory of Cultivation and Protection for Non-Wood Forest Trees of Ministry of Education and the Key Laboratory of Non-Wood Forest Products of Forestry Ministry, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, , Changsha, Hunan, 410004, People's Republic of China
                [ 2 ] Hunan Great Sanxiang Camellia Oil Co., Ltd, , Hengyang, Hunan 421000, People's Republic of China
                Author notes
                [ † ]

                These authors contributed equally to this study.

                Electronic supplementary material is available online at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.5910606.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9292-7262
                Article
                rsos211138
                10.1098/rsos.211138
                8965419
                35360359
                694d8c6a-5a30-4771-9301-20cebe3f8c60
                © 2022 The Authors.

                Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : July 21, 2021
                : March 2, 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: Scientific Research Foundation for Advanced Talents of Central South University of Forestry and Technology;
                Award ID: 2018YJ002
                Funded by: Key R&D Program of China;
                Award ID: 2018YFD1000603-1
                Categories
                1001
                129
                204
                Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology
                Research Articles

                camellia oleifera,seed size,phytohormone,gene expression,wgcna

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