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      Choroidal Excavation in Eye with Normal Tension Glaucoma

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          Purpose: To report the case of an eye with normal tension glaucoma and a choroidal excavation. Methods: This is an observational case report. Results: A 59-year-old woman with normal tension glaucoma had a choroidal excavation in the left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were within normal limits and had been stable for 5 years. Fundus examination showed a small white lesion inferior to the macula and a nerve fiber layer defect at the inferior edge of the optic disc. Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) showed visual field defects corresponding to the nerve fiber layer defect with C30-2, and a central scotoma superior to the macula with C10-2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed a 150-µm deep choroidal excavation. Disruptions of the IS/OS line were detected only in the area inferior to the choroidal excavation. During the 5 months of follow-up, her best-corrected visual acuity remained at 1.0 and the IOP ranged from 12 to 14 mm Hg in the left eye. The fundus and OCT images did not deteriorate and the choroidal excavation did not enlarge. Conclusions: The disruption of the inner/outer segment (IS/OS) line was detected only at the area surrounding the choroidal excavation. OCT examinations are useful in assessing the area of the residual IS/OS line, and HFA can be used to estimate the residual central visual field.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography.

          To visualize, quantitatively assess, and interpret outer retinal morphology by using high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) OCT. Retinal imaging was performed in the ophthalmic clinic in a cross-section of 43 normal subjects with a 3.5-microm, axial-resolution, high-speed, UHR OCT prototype instrument, using a radial scan pattern (24 images, 1500 axial scans). Outer retinal layers were automatically segmented and measured. High-definition imaging was performed with a 2.8-microm axial-resolution, high-speed, UHR OCT research prototype instrument, to visualize the finer features in the outer retina. Quantitative maps of outer retinal layers showed clear differences between the cone-dominated fovea and the rod-dominated parafovea and perifovea, indicating that photoreceptor morphology can explain the appearance of the outer retina in high-speed, UHR OCT images. Finer, scattering bands were visualized in the outer retina using high-definition imaging and were interpreted by comparison to known anatomy. High-speed UHR OCT enables quantification of scattering layers in the outer retina. An interpretation of these features is presented and supported by quantitative measurements in normal subjects and comparison with known anatomy. The thick scattering region of the outer retina previously attributed to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is shown to consist of distinct scattering bands corresponding to the photoreceptor outer segment tips, RPE, and Bruch's membrane. These results may advance understanding of the outer retinal appearance in OCT images. The normative measurements may also aid in future investigations of outer retinal changes in age-related macular degeneration and other diseases.
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            The expanded spectrum of focal choroidal excavation.

            To describe the clinical and imaging findings in patients with focal choroidal excavation. Retrospective observational case series. The medical records of 12 patients (13 eyes) with focal choroidal excavation were reviewed. Clinical histories and imaging findings (including color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography) were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 45 years (range, 22-62 years). Four patients were Asian. Mean visual acuity was 20/31 (range, 20/20 to 20/100). Mean refractive error was -3.54 diopters (D) (range, 6.00 to -8.00 D). One patient had bilateral involvement. All patients manifested varying degrees of foveal pigmentary changes that were usually hypoautofluorescent on fundus autofluorescence images. Fluorescein angiographic findings varied with degree of retinal pigment epithelial alterations. Indocyanine green angiography revealed relative hypofluorescence. In 7 eyes, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed outer retinal layers conforming to retinal pigment epithelial alterations within the excavation. In the other 6 eyes, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed a separation between the outer retina and the retinal pigment epithelium within the excavation. In 7 eyes studied with enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, there was no evidence of scleral ectasia. Mean choroidal thickness of the uninvolved choroid was thicker than normal at 319 μm (range, 244-439 μm). All lesions remained stable except for in 1 eye, which had findings of central serous chorioretinopathy and secondary type 2 (subretinal) neovascularization. Focal choroidal excavation is a newly described idiopathic entity in eyes having 1 or more focal areas of choroidal excavation. In some patients, there may be an association with central serous chorioretinopathy. Although most lesions remain stable, secondary choroidal neovascularization may occur.
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              A comparison of visual field sensitivity to photoreceptor thickness in retinitis pigmentosa.

              To explore the relationship between visual field sensitivity and photoreceptor layer thickness in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Static automated perimetry (central 30-2 threshold program with spot size III; Humphrey Field Analyzer; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA) and frequency domain optical coherence tomography (Fd-OCT) scans (Spectralis HRA+OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Vista, CA) were obtained from 10 age-matched normal control subjects and 20 patients with RP who had retained good central vision (better than 20/32). The outer segment (OS+) thickness (the distance between retinal pigment epithelium [RPE])/Bruch's membrane [BM] to the photoreceptor inner-outer segment junction), outer nuclear layer (ONL), and total retinal thickness were measured at locations corresponding to visual field test loci up to 21 degrees eccentricity. The average OS+ thickness in the control eyes was 63.1 +/- 5.2 microm, varying from approximately 69 microm in the foveal center to 56 microm at 21 degrees eccentricity. In patients with RP, OS+ thickness was below normal limits outside the fovea, and thickness decreased with loss in local field sensitivity, reaching an asymptotic value of 21.5 microm at approximately -10 dB. The ONL thickness also decreased with local field sensitivity loss. Although relative OS thickness was linearly related to visual field loss at all locations examined, a slightly better correlation was found between the product of OS and ONL thickness and visual field loss. In patients with RP with good foveal sensitivity, the OS thickness and the product of OS thickness and ONL thickness (assumed to represent the number of photoreceptors) decreases linearly with loss of local field sensitivity. In general, in regions where perimetric sensitivity loss is -10 dB or worse, the OS+ thickness approaches the thickness of the RPE/BM complex.

                Author and article information

                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                May – August 2014
                21 May 2014
                : 5
                : 2
                : 144-149
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology, Takarazuka Daiichi Hospital, Hyogo, and bDepartment of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
                Author notes
                *Kazunobu Asao, MD, Department of Ophthalmology, Takarazuka Daiichi Hospital, 19-5, Kogetsu-cho, Takarazuka-shi, Hyougo 665-0832 (Japan), E-Mail hirosaki1001@gmail.com
                363131 PMC4067725 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2014;5:144-149
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Pages: 6
                Published: May 2014


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