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      Physiology and Pharmacology of DPP-4 in Glucose Homeostasis and the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

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          Abstract

          Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), also known as the T-cell antigen CD26, is a multi-functional protein which, besides its catalytic activity, also functions as a binding protein and a ligand for a variety of extracellular molecules. It is an integral membrane protein expressed on cells throughout the body, but is also shed from the membrane and circulates as a soluble protein in the plasma. A large number of bioactive molecules can be cleaved by DPP-4 in vitro, but only a few of these have been demonstrated to be physiological substrates. One of these is the incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which plays an important role in the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis, and DPP-4 has been shown to be the key enzyme regulating its biological activity. This pathway has been targeted pharmacologically through the development of DPP-4 inhibitors, and these are now a successful class of anti-hyperglycaemic agents used to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM). DPP-4 may additionally influence metabolic control via its proteolytic effect on other regulatory peptides, but it has also been reported to affect insulin sensitivity, potentially mediated through its non-enzymatic interactions with other membrane proteins. Given that altered expression and activity of DPP-4 are associated with increasing body mass index and hyperglycaemia, DPP-4 has been proposed to play a role in linking obesity and the pathogenesis of T2DM by functioning as a local mediator of inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose and hepatic tissue. As well as these broader systemic effects, it has also been suggested that DPP-4 may be able to modulate β-cell function as part of a paracrine system involving GLP-1 produced locally within the pancreatic islets. However, while it is evident that DPP-4 has the potential to influence glycaemic control, its overall significance for the normal physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis in humans and its role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease remain to be established.

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          Most cited references 117

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          Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7-36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

          In type-2 diabetes, the overall incretin effect is reduced. The present investigation was designed to compare insulinotropic actions of exogenous incretin hormones (gastric inhibitory peptide [GIP] and glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1] [7-36 amide]) in nine type-2 diabetic patients (fasting plasma glucose 7.8 mmol/liter; hemoglobin A1c 6.3 +/- 0.6%) and in nine age- and weight-matched normal subjects. Synthetic human GIP (0.8 and 2.4 pmol/kg.min over 1 h each), GLP-1 [7-36 amide] (0.4 and 1.2 pmol/kg.min over 1 h each), and placebo were administered under hyperglycemic clamp conditions (8.75 mmol/liter) in separate experiments. Plasma GIP and GLP-1 [7-36 amide] concentrations (radioimmunoassay) were comparable to those after oral glucose with the low, and clearly supraphysiological with the high infusion rates. Both GIP and GLP-1 [7-36 amide] dose-dependently augmented insulin secretion (insulin, C-peptide) in both groups (P < 0.05). With GIP, the maximum effect in type-2 diabetic patients was significantly lower (by 54%; P < 0.05) than in normal subjects. With GLP-1 [7-36 amide] type-2 diabetic patients reached 71% of the increments in C-peptide of normal subjects (difference not significant). Glucagon was lowered during hyperglycemic clamps in normal subjects, but not in type-2 diabetic patients, and further by GLP-1 [7-36 amide] in both groups (P < 0.05), but not by GIP. In conclusion, in mild type-2 diabetes, GLP-1 [7-36 amide], in contrast to GIP, retains much of its insulinotropic activity. It also lowers glucagon concentrations.
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            Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV from bench to bedside: an update on structural properties, functions, and clinical aspects of the enzyme DPP IV.

            Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV/CD26 (DPP IV) is a cell-surface protease belonging to the prolyloligopeptidase family. It selectively removes the N-terminal dipeptide from peptides with proline or alanine in the second position. Apart from its catalytic activity, it interacts with several proteins, for instance, adenosine deaminase, the HIV gp120 protein, fibronectin, collagen, the chemokine receptor CXCR4, and the tyrosine phosphatase CD45. DPP IV is expressed on a specific set of T lymphocytes, where it is up-regulated after activation. It is also expressed in a variety of tissues, primarily on endothelial and epithelial cells. A soluble form is present in plasma and other body fluids. DPP IV has been proposed as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for various tumors, hematological malignancies, immunological, inflammatory, psychoneuroendocrine disorders, and viral infections. DPP IV truncates many bioactive peptides of medical importance. It plays a role in glucose homeostasis through proteolytic inactivation of the incretins. DPP IV inhibitors improve glucose tolerance and pancreatic islet cell function in animal models of type 2 diabetes and in diabetic patients. The role of DPP IV/ CD26 within the immune system is a combination of its exopeptidase activity and its interactions with different molecules. This enables DPP IV/CD26 to serve as a co-stimulatory molecule to influence T cell activity and to modulate chemotaxis. DPP IV is also implicated in HIV-1 entry, malignant transformation, and tumor invasion.
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              Effect of Linagliptin vs Placebo on Major Cardiovascular Events in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes and High Cardiovascular and Renal Risk

              Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. Prior trials have demonstrated CV safety of 3 dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors but have included limited numbers of patients with high CV risk and chronic kidney disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                15 February 2019
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen, Denmark
                Author notes

                Edited by: Pierre De Meyts, de Duve Institute, Belgium

                Reviewed by: Zachary Bloomgarden, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, United States; Burkhard Göke, Medical School Hamburg, Germany

                *Correspondence: Carolyn F. Deacon deacon@ 123456sund.ku.dk

                This article was submitted to Molecular and Structural Endocrinology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2019.00080
                6384237
                Copyright © 2019 Deacon.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 136, Pages: 14, Words: 12679
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Review

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