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      Effect of Different Irrigation Solutions on the Diffusion of MTA Cement into the Root Canal Dentin

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          Abstract

          (1) Aim: This study aims to analyze the in vitro infiltration of a silicate root canal sealer into dentinal tubules after using different endodontic irrigating solutions. (2) Methods: Twenty-nine teeth with single roots were separated into three groups according to the final irrigation protocol: G1 n = 10) = 17% EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) + 3.0% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), G2 ( n = 10) = 17% EDTA + 2.0% chlorhexidine and G3 (Control group, n = 9) = 17% EDTA + saline solution. Root canals were filled using cold lateral compaction technique with MTA Fillapex sealer and gutta-percha. The sealer was labeled with rhodamine B. The teeth were segmented at the middle and third apical sections, which were visualized using 10× confocal laser microscopy to determine the sealer penetration percentage. (3) Results: In the apical section, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding sealer penetration. In the middle section, Group 1 obtained the highest percentage, and Group 2 the lowest ( p = 0.004). Group 1 also presented statistically significant differences in the Control Group ( p = 0.031) and had close sealer penetration values. Meanwhile, the Control Group ( p = 0.023) and Group 2 ( p = 0.029) revealed a significant decrease of sealer penetration between the apical and middle sections. (4) Conclusion: The obtained results support that final irrigation with NaOCl promoted similar sealer penetration in the apical and middle sections. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the sealer penetration of the middle section was observed for the chlorhexidine and saline groups. Compared to other irrigant solutions, NaOCl promotes more uniform sealer penetration, which can correlate with better sealing and, consequently, higher endodontic treatment success.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Evaluation of cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of calcium silicate-based endodontic sealer MTA Fillapex.

          The aim of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity, radiopacity, pH, and flow of a calcium silicate-based and an epoxy resin-based endodontic sealer, MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil) and AH Plus (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), respectively.
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            Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review

            Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature.
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              Dentin moisture conditions affect the adhesion of root canal sealers.

              The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of intraradicular moisture conditions on the push-out bond strength of root canal sealers. Eighty root canals were prepared using rotary instruments and, thereafter, were assigned to 4 groups with respect to the moisture condition tested: (1) ethanol (dry): excess distilled water was removed with paper points followed by dehydration with 95% ethanol, (2) paper points: the canals were blot dried with paper points with the last one appearing dry, (3) moist: the canals were dried with low vacuum by using a Luer adapter for 5 seconds followed by 1 paper point for 1 second, and (4) wet: the canals remained totally flooded. The roots were further divided into 4 subgroups according to the sealer used: (1) AH Plus (Dentsply-Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), (2) iRoot SP (Innovative BioCeramix Inc, Vancouver, Canada), (3) MTA Fillapex (Angelus Indústria de Produtos Odontológicos S/A, Londrina, Brasil), and (4) Epiphany (Pentron Clinical Technologies, Wallingford, CT). Five 1-mm-thick slices were obtained from each root sample (n = 25 slices/group). Bond strengths of the test materials to root canal dentin were measured using a push-out test setup at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analyzed statistically by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests at P = .05. Irrespective of the moisture conditions, iRoot SP displayed the highest bond strength to root dentin. Statistical ranking of bond strength values was as follows: iRoot SP > AH Plus > Epiphany ≥ MTA Fillapex. The sealers displayed their highest and lowest bond strengths under moist (3) and wet (4) conditions, respectively. The degree of residual moisture significantly affects the adhesion of root canal sealers to radicular dentin. For the tested sealers, it may be advantageous to leave canals slightly moist before filling. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                01 December 2020
                December 2020
                : 13
                : 23
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Endodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal; josepedromartinho@ 123456gmail.com (J.P.M.); sarafranca@ 123456gmail.com (S.F.); sirivpaulo@ 123456gmail.com (S.P.)
                [2 ]Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Area of Environment, Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal; anabelabppaula@ 123456sapo.pt (A.B.P.); anasofiacoelho@ 123456gmail.com (A.S.C.); mabrantes@ 123456fmed.uc.pt (A.M.A.); eunicecarrilho@ 123456gmail.com (E.C.); cmiguel.marto@ 123456uc.pt (C.M.M.); mfbotelho@ 123456fmed.uc.pt (M.F.B.)
                [3 ]Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal; fcaramelo@ 123456fmed.uc.pt (F.C.); hmgirao@ 123456fmed.uc.pt (H.G.)
                [4 ]Clinical Academic Center of Coimbra, CACC, 3004-561 Coimbra, Portugal
                [5 ]Institute of Integrated Clinical Practice, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
                [6 ]Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
                [7 ]Laboratory of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
                [8 ]Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
                [9 ]Institute of Experimental Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: m.mferreira@ 123456netcabo.pt or mmferreira@ 123456fmed.uc.pt ; Tel./Fax: + 351-239484183
                [†]

                The second author made a contribution equivalent to that of the first author in the conduct of the work and preparation of the article.

                Article
                materials-13-05472
                10.3390/ma13235472
                7730380
                33271754
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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