Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae is a promising source of astaxanthin, an excellent antioxidant carotenoid. H. pluvialis, as well as other species, could find more extensive applications as healthy food for a variegated carotenoids composition in addition to astaxanthin. Official method has not currently been used for this purpose. The objective of this work was to propose a method to characterize carotenoids in H. pluvialis after the comparison between spectrophotometric and liquid chromatography analysis. In addition, in order to improve the use of astaxanthin in the food industry, thermal stability was investigated. In this context, the effect of temperature at 40–80 °C, over a 16 h storage period was tested on astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis. A further test was carried out at room temperature (20 °C) for seven days. A decrease in the astaxanthin concentration was observed at all tested temperatures with a decrease >50% of all-trans isomer at 80 °C after 16 h and an increase of 9-cis and 13-cis isomers. In conclusion, the obtained results showed the importance of evaluating the degradation effect of temperature on astaxanthin used as a food additive for a future greater enhancement of this bioproduct in the food field.