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      Smart Method for Carotenoids Characterization in Haematococcus pluvialis Red Phase and Evaluation of Astaxanthin Thermal Stability

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          Abstract

          Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae is a promising source of astaxanthin, an excellent antioxidant carotenoid. H. pluvialis, as well as other species, could find more extensive applications as healthy food for a variegated carotenoids composition in addition to astaxanthin. Official method has not currently been used for this purpose. The objective of this work was to propose a method to characterize carotenoids in H. pluvialis after the comparison between spectrophotometric and liquid chromatography analysis. In addition, in order to improve the use of astaxanthin in the food industry, thermal stability was investigated. In this context, the effect of temperature at 40–80 °C, over a 16 h storage period was tested on astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis. A further test was carried out at room temperature (20 °C) for seven days. A decrease in the astaxanthin concentration was observed at all tested temperatures with a decrease >50% of all-trans isomer at 80 °C after 16 h and an increase of 9-cis and 13-cis isomers. In conclusion, the obtained results showed the importance of evaluating the degradation effect of temperature on astaxanthin used as a food additive for a future greater enhancement of this bioproduct in the food field.

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          Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health

          Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.
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            Relative solubility, stability, and absorptivity of lutein and .beta.-carotene in organic solvents

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              Cis astaxanthin and especially 9-cis astaxanthin exhibits a higher antioxidant activity in vitro compared to the all-trans isomer.

              In recent years, a number of studies have implicated the potent antioxidant property of astaxanthin in various experimental systems; however, these studies employed only the all-trans isomer. On the other hand, it has been reported that all-trans natural astaxanthin is readily isomerized to cis-trans, especially 9-cis and 13-cis isomers, under certain conditions by chemical analysis; however, the biological activities of the cis isomers of astaxanthin are little known. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant activity of 9-cis and 13-cis astaxanthin compared to the all-trans isomer in vitro. In a stable radical DPPH scavenging activity test and in rat microsome and rabbit erythrocyte ghost membrane lipid peroxidation systems induced by AAPH and t-BuOOH, respectively, the results apparently showed that cis-astaxanthin, especially 9-cis astaxanthin, exhibited a higher antioxidant effect than the all-trans isomer. In addition, during polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation, both DHA and linoleic acid hydroperoxides formation were markedly inhibited by astaxanthin isomers addition in the order 9-cis >13-cis >all-trans. Furthermore, 9-cis also exhibited the most effective inhibition of the generation of ROS induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells among the astaxanthin isomers, as well as on the degradation of collagen type II induced by DHA and linoleic acid hydroperoxides. The above-mentioned results suggest, for the first time, that cis isomer astaxanthin, especially 9-cis astaxanthin, has a much higher antioxidant potency than that of the all-trans isomer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                antioxidants
                Antioxidants
                MDPI
                2076-3921
                13 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 9
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Sustainability—CR Portici. P. Enrico Fermi, 1, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy; patrizia.casella@ 123456enea.it (P.C.); angela.iovine@ 123456unicampania.it (A.I.); sanjeet.mehariya@ 123456unicampania.it (S.M.)
                [2 ]Department of Engineering, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Real Casa dell’Annunziata, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE), Italy; tiziana.marino@ 123456unicampania.it (T.M.); dino.musmarra@ 123456unicampania.it (D.M.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: antonio.molino@ 123456enea.it ; Tel.: +39-081-772-3276
                Article
                antioxidants-09-00422
                10.3390/antiox9050422
                7278830
                32414186
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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