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      Minocycline attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation, sickness behavior, and anhedonia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Activation of the peripheral innate immune system stimulates the secretion of CNS cytokines that modulate the behavioral symptoms of sickness. Excessive production of cytokines by microglia, however, may cause long-lasting behavioral and cognitive complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent and purported microglial inhibitor, attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation, sickness behavior, and anhedonia.

          Methods

          In the first set of experiments the effect of minocycline pretreatment on LPS-induced microglia activation was assessed in BV-2 microglia cell cultures. In the second study, adult (3–6 m) BALB/c mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of vehicle or minocycline (50 mg/kg) for three consecutive days. On the third day, mice were also injected (i.p.) with saline or Escherichia coli LPS (0.33 mg/kg) and behavior (i.e., sickness and anhedonia) and markers of neuroinflammation (i.e., microglia activation and inflammatory cytokines) were determined. In the final study, adult and aged BALB/c mice were treated with the same minocycline and LPS injection regimen and markers of neuroinflammation were determined. All data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis Systems General Linear Model procedures and were subjected to one-, two-, or three-way ANOVA to determine significant main effects and interactions.

          Results

          Minocycline blocked LPS-stimulated inflammatory cytokine secretion in the BV-2 microglia-derived cell line and reduced LPS-induced Toll-like-receptor-2 (TLR2) surface expression on brain microglia. Moreover, minocycline facilitated the recovery from sickness behavior (i.e., anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal) and prevented anhedonia in adult mice challenged with LPS. Furthermore, the minocycline associated recovery from LPS-induced sickness behavior was paralleled by reduced mRNA levels of Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) in the cortex and hippocampus. Finally, in aged mice, where exaggerated neuroinflammation was elicited by LPS, minocycline pretreatment was still effective in markedly reducing mRNA levels of IL-1β, TLR2 and IDO in the hippocampus.

          Conclusion

          These data indicate that minocycline mitigates neuroinflammation in the adult and aged brain and modulates the cytokine-associated changes in motivation and behavior.

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          Most cited references54

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          Exaggerated neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in aged mice following activation of the peripheral innate immune system.

          Acute cognitive impairment (i.e., delirium) is common in elderly emergency department patients and frequently results from infections that are unrelated to the central nervous system. Since activation of the peripheral innate immune system induces brain microglia to produce inflammatory cytokines that are responsible for behavioral deficits, we investigated if aging exacerbated neuroinflammation and sickness behavior after peripheral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Microarray analysis revealed a transcriptional profile indicating the presence of primed or activated microglia and increased inflammation in the aged brain. Furthermore, aged mice had a unique gene expression profile in the brain after an intraperitoneal injection of LPS, and the LPS-induced elevation in the brain inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress was both exaggerated and prolonged compared with adults. Aged mice were anorectic longer and lost more weight than adults after peripheral LPS administration. Moreover, reductions in both locomotor and social behavior remained 24 h later in aged mice, when adults had fully recovered, and the exaggerated neuroinflammatory response in aged mice was not reliably paralleled by increased circulating cytokines in the periphery. Taken together, these data establish that activation of the peripheral innate immune system leads to exacerbated neuroinflammation in the aged as compared with adult mice. This dysregulated link between the peripheral and central innate immune system is likely to be involved in the severe behavioral deficits that frequently occur in older adults with systemic infections.
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            Mood disorders in the medically ill: scientific review and recommendations.

            The purpose of this review is to assess the relationship between mood disorders and development, course, and associated morbidity and mortality of selected medical illnesses, review evidence for treatment, and determine needs in clinical practice and research. Data were culled from the 2002 Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Conference proceedings and a literature review addressing prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. This review also considered the experience of primary and specialty care providers, policy analysts, and patient advocates. The review and recommendations reflect the expert opinion of the authors. Reviews of epidemiology and mechanistic studies were included, as were open-label and randomized, controlled trials on treatment of depression in patients with medical comorbidities. Data on study design, population, and results were extracted for review of evidence that includes tables of prevalence and pharmacological treatment. The effect of depression and bipolar disorder on selected medical comorbidities was assessed, and recommendations for practice, research, and policy were developed. A growing body of evidence suggests that biological mechanisms underlie a bidirectional link between mood disorders and many medical illnesses. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that mood disorders affect the course of medical illnesses. Further prospective studies are warranted.
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              Endogenous kynurenines as targets for drug discovery and development.

              The kynurenine pathway is the main pathway for tryptophan metabolism. It generates compounds that can modulate activity at glutamate receptors and possibly nicotinic receptors, in addition to some as-yet-unidentified sites. The pathway is in a unique position to regulate other aspects of the metabolism of tryptophan to neuroactive compounds, and also seems to be a key factor in the communication between the nervous and immune systems. It also has potentially important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and tissue function in the periphery. As a result, the pathway presents a multitude of potential sites for drug discovery in neuroscience, oncology and visceral pathology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Neuroinflammation
                Journal of Neuroinflammation
                BioMed Central
                1742-2094
                2008
                13 May 2008
                : 5
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University, 333 W. 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
                [2 ]Department of Oral Biology, The Ohio State University, 305 W. 12th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
                [3 ]Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University, 333 W. 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
                Article
                1742-2094-5-15
                10.1186/1742-2094-5-15
                2412862
                18477398
                69914bd5-787a-41e6-8a36-1d268dc1374f
                Copyright © 2008 Henry et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research

                Neurosciences
                Neurosciences

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