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      Callose: the plant cell wall polysaccharide with multiple biological functions

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      Acta Physiologiae Plantarum
      Springer Nature

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          Glucosinolate metabolites required for an Arabidopsis innate immune response.

          The perception of pathogen or microbe-associated molecular pattern molecules by plants triggers a basal defense response analogous to animal innate immunity and is defined partly by the deposition of the glucan polymer callose at the cell wall at the site of pathogen contact. Transcriptional and metabolic profiling in Arabidopsis mutants, coupled with the monitoring of pathogen-triggered callose deposition, have identified major roles in pathogen response for the plant hormone ethylene and the secondary metabolite 4-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate. Two genes, PEN2 and PEN3, are also necessary for resistance to pathogens and are required for both callose deposition and glucosinolate activation, suggesting that the pathogen-triggered callose response is required for resistance to microbial pathogens. Our study shows that well-studied plant metabolites, previously identified as important in avoiding damage by herbivores, are also required as a component of the plant defense response against microbial pathogens.
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            Callose biosynthesis regulates symplastic trafficking during root development.

            Plant cells are connected through plasmodesmata (PD), membrane-lined channels that allow symplastic movement of molecules between cells. However, little is known about the role of PD-mediated signaling during plant morphogenesis. Here, we describe an Arabidopsis gene, CALS3/GSL12. Gain-of-function mutations in CALS3 result in increased accumulation of callose (β-1,3-glucan) at the PD, a decrease in PD aperture, defects in root development, and reduced intercellular trafficking. Enhancement of CALS3 expression during phloem development suppressed loss-of-function mutations in the phloem abundant callose synthase, CALS7 indicating that CALS3 is a bona fide callose synthase. CALS3 alleles allowed us to spatially and temporally control the PD aperture between plant tissues. Using this tool, we are able to show that movement of the transcription factor SHORT-ROOT and microRNA165 between the stele and the endodermis is PD dependent. Taken together, we conclude that regulated callose biosynthesis at PD is essential for cell signaling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              The cell wall in plant cell response to trace metals: polysaccharide remodeling and its role in defense strategy

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Acta Physiologiae Plantarum
                Acta Physiol Plant
                Springer Nature
                0137-5881
                1861-1664
                March 2013
                September 2012
                : 35
                : 3
                : 635-644
                Article
                10.1007/s11738-012-1103-y
                69a2c27e-1798-4dc3-9174-812ff338dd37
                © 2013
                History

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