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      Body mass index is inversely associated with mortality in patients with acute kidney injury undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy


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          Many epidemiologic studies have reported on the controversial concept of the obesity paradox. The presence of acute kidney injury (AKI) can accelerate energy-consuming processes, particularly in patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Thus, we aimed to investigate whether obesity can provide a survival benefit in this highly catabolic condition.


          We conducted an observational study in 212 patients who had undergone CRRT owing to various causes of AKI between 2010 and 2014. The study end point was defined as death that occurred within 30 days after the initiation of CRRT.


          Patients were categorized into three groups according to tertiles of body mass index (BMI). During ≥30 days after the initiation of CRRT, 39 patients (57.4%) in the highest tertile died, as compared with 58 patients (78.4%) in the lowest tertile ( P = 0.02). In a multivariable analysis adjusted for cofounding factors, the highest tertile of BMI was significantly associated with a decreased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37–0.87; P = 0.01). This significant association remained unaltered for 60-day (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43–0.94; P = 0.03) and 90-day mortality (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44–0.97; P = 0.03).


          This study showed that a higher BMI confer a survival benefit over a lower BMI in AKI patients undergoing CRRT.

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          Most cited references30

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          Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.

          The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney injury were assessed using absolute and relative increases from baseline to peak SCr concentration during hospitalization. Large increases in SCr concentration were relatively rare (e.g., >or=2.0 mg/dl in 105 [1%] patients), whereas more modest increases in SCr were common (e.g., >or=0.5 mg/dl in 1237 [13%] patients). Modest changes in SCr were significantly associated with mortality, LOS, and costs, even after adjustment for age, gender, admission International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis, severity of illness (diagnosis-related group weight), and chronic kidney disease. For example, an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl was associated with a 6.5-fold (95% confidence interval 5.0 to 8.5) increase in the odds of death, a 3.5-d increase in LOS, and nearly 7500 dollars in excess hospital costs. Acute kidney injury is associated with significantly increased mortality, LOS, and costs across a broad spectrum of conditions. Moreover, outcomes are related directly to the severity of acute kidney injury, whether characterized by nominal or percentage changes in serum creatinine.
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            Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.).

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              Association of weight status with mortality in adults with incident diabetes.

              Type 2 diabetes in normal-weight adults (body mass index [BMI] 40 years) who developed incident diabetes based on fasting glucose 126 mg/dL or greater or newly initiated diabetes medication and who had concurrent measurements of BMI. Participants were classified as normal weight if their BMI was 18.5 to 24.99 or overweight/obese if BMI was 25 or greater. Total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality. The proportion of adults who were normal weight at the time of incident diabetes ranged from 9% to 21% (overall 12%). During follow-up, 449 participants died: 178 from cardiovascular causes and 253 from noncardiovascular causes (18 were not classified). The rates of total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality were higher in normal-weight participants (284.8, 99.8, and 198.1 per 10,000 person-years, respectively) than in overweight/obese participants (152.1, 67.8, and 87.9 per 10,000 person-years, respectively). After adjustment for demographic characteristics and blood pressure, lipid levels, waist circumference, and smoking status, hazard ratios comparing normal-weight participants with overweight/obese participants for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality were 2.08 (95% CI, 1.52-2.85), 1.52 (95% CI, 0.89-2.58), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.55-3.48), respectively. Adults who were normal weight at the time of incident diabetes had higher mortality than adults who are overweight or obese.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Res Clin Pract
                Kidney Res Clin Pract
                Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
                Korean Society of Nephrology
                March 2017
                31 March 2017
                : 36
                : 1
                : 39-47
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                [2 ]Institute of Kidney Disease Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
                [3 ]Ewha Institute of Convergence Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, Korea
                [4 ]Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Seung Hyeok Han, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea. E-mail: hansh@ 123456yuhs.ac

                Hyoungnae Kim and Joohwan Kim contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2017 by The Korean Society of Nephrology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 21 September 2016
                : 31 October 2016
                : 05 December 2016
                Original Article

                acute kidney injury,body mass index,continuous renal replacement therapy,mortality,obesity


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