7
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Itch and Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview

      1

      The Journal of Dermatology

      Wiley

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Itching is the hallmark of atopic dermatitis, and a vicious itch-scratch circle is easily established. Itching and scratching are important factors in the maintenance of symptoms and can have a significant impact on the sufferer's quality of life. The pathophysiology of itch in atopic dermatitis is still not understood. Unlike in urticaria, histamine is not considered to be a major pruritogen in atopic dermatitis. In fact, the peripheral pruritogens and their cellular origin(s) still remain to be identified in this disease. Various treatments are used to relieve the skin inflammation, itching, and scratching in patients with atopic dermatitis, but no specific antipruritic therapy is available. However, several nonspecific therapies can effectively break the vicious itch-scratch circle. The use of topical corticosteroids and emollients and the elimination of individual trigger factors are still first-line measures.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 72

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The U.K. Working Party's Diagnostic Criteria for Atopic Dermatitis. III. Independent hospital validation.

          In order to qualify as a case of atopic dermatitis, we propose that an individual must have an itchy skin condition plus three or more of the following: history of flexural involvement, a history of asthma/hay fever, a history of a generalized dry skin, onset of rash under the age of 2 years, or visible flexural dermatitis. When tested in an independent sample of 200 consecutive dermatology outpatients of all ages, this arrangement of the diagnostic criteria achieved 69% sensitivity and 96% specificity when validated against physician's diagnosis. Based on the findings of this first exercise, minor modifications in the wording of the criteria were undertaken, and these were tested on a sample of 114 consecutive children attending out-patient paediatric dermatology clinics. Overall discrimination improved, with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 96%. The simplified criteria are easy to use, take under 2 min per patient to ascertain, and do not require subjects to undress. These two independent validation studies suggest that the newly proposed criteria for atopic dermatitis perform reasonably well in hospital out-patient patients. Further validation in community settings and in developing countries is needed.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A short-term trial of tacrolimus ointment for atopic dermatitis. European Tacrolimus Multicenter Atopic Dermatitis Study Group.

            Tacrolimus (FK 506) is an effective immunosuppressant drug for the prevention of rejection after organ transplantation, and preliminary studies suggest that topical application of tacrolimus is effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. We conducted a randomized, doubleblind, multicenter study that compared 0.03 percent, 0.1 percent, and 0.3 percent tacrolimus ointment with vehicle alone in patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. The ointment was applied twice daily to a defined, symptomatic area of 200 to 1000 cm2 of skin for three weeks. The primary end point was the change in the summary score for erythema, edema, and pruritus between the first and last days of treatment. After three weeks of treatment, the median percentage decrease in the summary score for dermatitis on the trunk and extremities was 66.7 percent for the 54 patients receiving 0.03 percent tacrolimus, 83.3 percent for the 54 patients receiving 0.1 percent tacrolimus, 75.0 percent for the 51 patients receiving 0.3 percent tacrolimus, and 22.5 percent for the 54 patients receiving vehicle alone (P<0.001). The results for the face and neck were similar. The differences among the three tacrolimus groups were not statistically significant. A sensation of burning at the site of application was the only adverse event that was significantly more frequent with tacrolimus than with vehicle alone (P<0.001). Throughout the study, most patients in all three tacrolimus groups had blood concentrations of tacrolimus below 0.25 ng per milliliter. The highest concentration was 4.9 ng per milliliter, which was reported in the group receiving 0.3 percent tacrolimus. The short-term application of tacrolimus ointment is effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, with the sensation of burning being the main side effect.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Itching after epidural and spinal opiates.

              When opiates are administered by the epidural and spinal routes, itching occurs as a side effect. We reviewed 52 reports in the literature of the use of epidural and spinal opiates to assess the incidence of itching and found an overall incidence of 8.5% in patients receiving epidural opiates, and 46% in patients receiving spinal opiates. The symptom is a recognised, though rare, side effect of systemically administered opiates, and in the case of systemic administration the itching is generalised. In the case of epidural and spinal administration, the itching may be generalised. But often a segmental distribution is demonstrable, centred on the level of injection, or the itching is localised to a particular area such as the nose and face. It is likely therefore, in the latter case, that there is an effect upon the spinal cord itself. Although occasionally spinal opiate-induced itching is extremely troublesome and lessens the value of spinal opiate pain relief, in the majority of cases, the itching is not severe and is treatable with naloxone. However, the frequent occurrence of the symptom and the likelihood of a spinal cord mechanism do provide valuable information about opioid actions, and benefit may be derived from better understanding the phenomenon. This paper states a hypothesis to explain spinal opiate-induced itch and explores the possible mechanisms of the effect.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Journal of Dermatology
                The Journal of Dermatology
                Wiley
                03852407
                November 1999
                November 1999
                April 09 2015
                : 26
                : 11
                : 770-779
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Dermatology & Venereology; Karolinska Hospital and Institute; Box 120 SE-171 76 Stockholm Sweden
                Article
                10.1111/j.1346-8138.1999.tb02090.x
                10635621
                © 2015

                Comments

                Comment on this article