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      Geographic Distribution and Niche Divergence of Two Stinkbugs, Parastrachia japonensis and Parastrachia nagaensis

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          Parastrachiidae is a small stinkbug family containing only one genus and two species, Parastrachia japonensis (Scott) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea) and Parastrachia nagaensis Distant. The geographic distribution of the genus has been poorly studied. Niche conservatism refers to that idea that closely related species are more ecologically similar than would be expected, whereas niche divergence predicts they occupy distinct niche spaces. The existence of only two species within one genus suggests niche conservatism or differentiation might exist among them. Herein, the distribution of the genus was mapped, potential distributions were predicted using ecological niche modeling, and climate spaces occupied by the two species were identified and compared. Our outlined map supports the general spreading route proposed by Schaefer et al. The potential distributions suggest that the genus’ range could extend beyond its presently known distribution, and further investigation into this area could aid in their conservation, particularly P. nagaensis. The niche space inferred by ecological niche modeling suggests the two species do not occupy identical habitat, but the differences between their models could simply be due to the differential availability of habitat in the different regions that they occupy.

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          Most cited references 104

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          Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
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              Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems.

               J Swets (1988)
              Diagnostic systems of several kinds are used to distinguish between two classes of events, essentially "signals" and "noise". For them, analysis in terms of the "relative operating characteristic" of signal detection theory provides a precise and valid measure of diagnostic accuracy. It is the only measure available that is uninfluenced by decision biases and prior probabilities, and it places the performances of diverse systems on a common, easily interpreted scale. Representative values of this measure are reported here for systems in medical imaging, materials testing, weather forecasting, information retrieval, polygraph lie detection, and aptitude testing. Though the measure itself is sound, the values obtained from tests of diagnostic systems often require qualification because the test data on which they are based are of unsure quality. A common set of problems in testing is faced in all fields. How well these problems are handled, or can be handled in a given field, determines the degree of confidence that can be placed in a measured value of accuracy. Some fields fare much better than others.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Tianjin Key Laboratory of Animal and Plant Resistance, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
                [2 ]Institute of Entomology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
                [3 ]Department of Biosystematics, Opole University, Oleska 22, 45–052 Opole, Poland
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author

                Editor: Robert Jetton was editor of this paper.

                J Insect Sci
                J. Insect Sci
                Journal of Insect Science
                University of Wisconsin Library
                5 October 2013
                : 13
                24738857 4012745 10.1673/031.013.10201
                © 2013

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Pages: 16


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