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      Nutrition for the Japanese Elderly

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      Nutrition and Health
      SAGE Publications

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          Abstract

          The present paper examines the relationship of nutritional status to further life expectancy and health status in the Japanese elderly based on 3 epidemiological studies. 1. Nutrient intakes in 94 Japanese centenarians investigated between 1972 and 1973 showed a higher proportion of animal protein to total proteins than in contemporary average Japanese. 2. High intakes of milk and fats and oils had favorable effects on 10-year (1976-1986) survivorship in 422 urban residents aged 69-71. The survivors revealed a longitudinal increase in intakes of animal foods such as eggs, milk, fish and meat over the 10 years. 3. Nutrient intakes were compared, based on 24-hour dietary records, between a sample from Okinawa Prefecture where life expectancies at birth and 65 were the longest in Japan, and a sample from Akita Prefecture where the life expectancies were much shorter. Intakes of Ca, Fe, vitamins A, B1, B2, C, and the proportion of energy from proteins and fats were significantly higher in the former than in the latter. Intakes of carbohydrates and NaCl were lower.

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          Continuing diet trends in men: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (1961-1987).

          Due to increasing evidence for the role of nutrition as a cause of illness and of the efforts of health agencies to induce Americans to change their diets, it is important to monitor populations for changes in their nutrient intakes. Seven-day diet records were collected from 105 free-living men in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Age range was initially 27 to 65 and finally 50 to 88 years. The men were divided into age groups so that longitudinal, time series, and cross-sectional analyses could distinguish among differences due to aging, cohort, and secular change. Longitudinal decreases over three decades of time include height, intakes of kcal/day, kcal/kg, kcal from fat, and cholesterol (all p less than .0001). Longitudinal increases over time include body weight, intakes of kcal from alcohol (p = .002), kcal from carbohydrate, and polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) (all p less than .0001). Values that correlated cross-sectionally with age in the 1960s were height, kcal/day, kcal/kg, kcal from protein, and P/S ratio; height, intakes of kcal from protein, and fiber in the 1970s; and body weight, height, intakes of kcal from carbohydrate and fiber in the 1980s (all p less than .05). Protein consumption remained constant while carbohydrate increased as time passed. The more striking secular changes were in type and amount of fat consumed (42% to 34% of kcal, a 37% decline in cholesterol and a 72% increase in P/S ratio). Voluntary changes in the diets of these community-dwelling men indicate that, at any age, men can make beneficial changes in intake of nutrients that affect health.
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            Nutritional status of the elderly.

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              Longitudinal changes of serum albumin in elderly people living in the community.

              The relationship of serum albumin at baseline to mortality, and longitudinal changes of serum albumin were investigated in a 10-year longitudinal study of 421 (197 men, 224 women) community residents aged 69-71. The 10-year survival rate was the lowest in the first quartile of serum albumin at baseline, followed by the second quartile, and third and fourth quartiles (p less than 0.05). In both sexes, 10-year survival curves did not differ between the group with diseases or disabilities at baseline or over time and the group without them.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrition and Health
                Nutr Health
                SAGE Publications
                0260-1060
                2047-945X
                October 12 2016
                October 12 2016
                : 8
                : 2-3
                : 165-175
                Article
                10.1177/026010609200800312
                1407826
                69b3e122-1d8f-4222-ba55-1b9b8b481869
                © 2016

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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