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Comparison of AMG 416 and cinacalcet in rodent models of uremia

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      Abstract

      BackgroundAMG 416 is a novel peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). This report describes the activity of AMG 416 in two different rodent models of uremia, compared in each case to cinacalcet, an approved therapeutic for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis.MethodsAMG 416 was administered as a single intravenous (IV) bolus in a severe, acute model of renal insufficiency (the “1K1C” model) and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium levels were monitored for 24 hours. In a chronic, less severe model of renal dysfunction, the 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) model, AMG 416 was administered as a once-daily IV bolus for 28 days. Both studies included a control (vehicle) group and a comparison cinacalcet group (po dosing at 30 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg for the 1K1C and 5/6 Nx studies, respectively).ResultsAdministration of AMG 416 by IV bolus injection into rats with acute renal dysfunction (1K1C model) resulted in a sustained reduction in plasma PTH from the initial elevated values. Following a single IV bolus (0.5 mg/kg), AMG 416 caused a substantial drop in PTH levels which remained approximately 50% below their initial level at 24 hrs. In the same model, oral treatment with cinacalcet (30 mg/kg) resulted in an acute drop in PTH which almost returned to the starting level by 24 hours after dosing. In the 5/6 Nx chronic uremia model, daily IV dosing of AMG 416 over 4 weeks (1 mg/kg) resulted in a sustained reduction in PTH, with approximately 50% of the initial level observed 48 hours post treatment throughout the study. Cinacalcet treatment (10 mg/kg) in the same model resulted in acutely lowered plasma PTH levels which returned to placebo levels by 24 hours post-dose. Consistent with the reductions in plasma PTH, reductions in serum calcium were observed in both AMG 416- and cinacalcet-treated animals.ConclusionsAs a long-acting CaSR agonist suitable for administration by the IV route, AMG 416 is a potential new therapy for the treatment of CKD patients with SHPT receiving hemodialysis.

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      Cloning and characterization of an extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor from bovine parathyroid.

      Maintenance of a stable internal environment within complex organisms requires specialized cells that sense changes in the extracellular concentration of specific ions (such as Ca2+). Although the molecular nature of such ion sensors is unknown, parathyroid cells possess a cell surface Ca(2+)-sensing mechanism that also recognizes trivalent and polyvalent cations (such as neomycin) and couples by changes in phosphoinositide turnover and cytosolic Ca2+ to regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion. The latter restores normocalcaemia by acting on kidney and bone. We now report the cloning of complementary DNA encoding an extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor from bovine parathyroid with pharmacological and functional properties nearly identical to those of the native receptor. The novel approximately 120K receptor shares limited similarity with the metabotropic glutamate receptors and features a large extracellular domain, containing clusters of acidic amino-acid residues possibly involved in calcium binding, coupled to a seven-membrane-spanning domain like those in the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily.
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        Cinacalcet for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving hemodialysis.

        Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism with vitamin D and calcium in patients receiving dialysis is often complicated by hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, which may contribute to cardiovascular disease and adverse clinical outcomes. Calcimimetics target the calcium-sensing receptor and lower parathyroid hormone levels without increasing calcium and phosphorus levels. We report the results of two identical randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the safety and effectiveness of the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet hydrochloride. Patients who were receiving hemodialysis and who had inadequately controlled secondary hyperparathyroidism despite standard treatment were randomly assigned to receive cinacalcet (371 patients) or placebo (370 patients) for 26 weeks. Once-daily doses were increased from 30 mg to 180 mg to achieve intact parathyroid hormone levels of 250 pg per milliliter or less. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with values in this range during a 14-week efficacy-assessment phase. Forty-three percent of the cinacalcet group reached the primary end point, as compared with 5 percent of the placebo group (P<0.001). Overall, mean parathyroid hormone values decreased 43 percent in those receiving cinacalcet but increased 9 percent in the placebo group (P<0.001). The serum calcium-phosphorus product declined by 15 percent in the cinacalcet group and remained unchanged in the placebo group (P<0.001). Cinacalcet effectively reduced parathyroid hormone levels independently of disease severity or changes in vitamin D sterol dose. Cinacalcet lowers parathyroid hormone levels and improves calcium-phosphorus homeostasis in patients receiving hemodialysis who have uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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          Endocrine functions of bone in mineral metabolism regulation.

           L Quarles (2008)
          Given the dramatic increase in skeletal size during growth, the need to preserve skeletal mass during adulthood, and the large capacity of bone to store calcium and phosphate, juxtaposed with the essential role of phosphate in energy metabolism and the adverse effects of hyperphosphatemia, it is not surprising that a complex systems biology has evolved that permits cross-talk between bone and other organs to adjust phosphate balance and bone mineralization in response to changing physiological requirements. This review examines the newly discovered signaling pathways involved in the endocrine functions of bone, such as those mediated by the phosphaturic and 1,25(OH)2D-regulating hormone FGF23, and the broader systemic effects associated with abnormalities of calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Amgen Inc, 1120 Veterans Blvd., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
            [2 ]Present address: Labrys Biologics, San Mateo, CA, USA
            [3 ]Present address: Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA
            [4 ]Present address: Calithera Biosciences, South San Francisco, CA, USA
            [5 ]Present address: Kunming Biomedical, Kunming, China
            [6 ]Present address: MedImmune, Hayward, CA, USA
            [7 ]Present address: Sutro Biopharma, South San Francisco, CA, USA
            [8 ]Present address: MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD, USA
            Contributors
            Journal
            BMC Nephrol
            BMC Nephrol
            BMC Nephrology
            BioMed Central
            1471-2369
            2014
            19 May 2014
            : 15
            : 81
            4030018
            1471-2369-15-81
            10.1186/1471-2369-15-81
            Copyright © 2014 Walter et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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