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      Prognosis of chronic kidney disease with normal-range proteinuria: The CKD-ROUTE study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Although lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher proteinuria are high risks for mortality and kidney outcomes, the prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with normal-range proteinuria remains unclear.

          Methods

          In this prospective cohort study, 1138 newly visiting stage G2–G5 CKD patients were stratified into normal-range and abnormal-range proteinuria groups. Study endpoints were CKD progression (>50% eGFR loss or initiation of dialysis), cardiovascular events, and all-cause death.

          Results

          In total, 927 patients who were followed for >6 months were included in the analysis. The mean age was 67 years, and 70.2% were male. During a median follow-up of 35 months, CKD progression, cardiovascular events, and mortality were observed in 223, 110, and 55 patients, respectively. Patients with normal-range proteinuria had a significantly lower risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–0.38) than those with abnormal-proteinuria by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. We also analyzed patients with normal-range proteinuria (n = 351). Nephrosclerosis was the most frequent cause of CKD among all patients with normal-range proteinuria (59.7%). During a median follow-up of 36 months, CKD progression, cardiovascular events, and mortality were observed in 10, 28, and 18 patients, respectively. The Kaplan–Meyer analysis demonstrated that the risks of CKD progression and cardiovascular events were not significantly different among CKD stages, whereas the risk of death was significantly higher in patients with advanced-stage CKD. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the risk of three endpoints did not significantly differ among CKD stages.

          Conclusion

          Newly visiting CKD patients with normal-range proteinuria, who tend to be overlooked during health checkups did not exhibit a decrease in kidney function even in advanced CKD stages under specialized nephrology care.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Lower estimated GFR and higher albuminuria are associated with adverse kidney outcomes. A collaborative meta-analysis of general and high-risk population cohorts.

          Both a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are known risk factors for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). To determine their joint contribution to ESRD and other kidney outcomes, we performed a meta-analysis of nine general population cohorts with 845,125 participants and an additional eight cohorts with 173,892 patients, the latter selected because of their high risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the general population, the risk for ESRD was unrelated to eGFR at values between 75 and 105 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) but increased exponentially at lower levels. Hazard ratios for eGFRs averaging 60, 45, and 15 were 4, 29, and 454, respectively, compared with an eGFR of 95, after adjustment for albuminuria and cardiovascular risk factors. Log albuminuria was linearly associated with log ESRD risk without thresholds. Adjusted hazard ratios at albumin-to-creatinine ratios of 30, 300, and 1000 mg/g were 5, 13, and 28, respectively, compared with an albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 5. Albuminuria and eGFR were associated with ESRD, without evidence for multiplicative interaction. Similar associations were found for acute kidney injury and progressive CKD. In high-risk cohorts, the findings were generally comparable. Thus, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria are risk factors for ESRD, acute kidney injury and progressive CKD in both general and high-risk populations, independent of each other and of cardiovascular risk factors.
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            Mechanisms of progression and regression of renal lesions of chronic nephropathies and diabetes.

            The incidence of chronic kidney diseases is increasing worldwide, and these conditions are emerging as a major public health problem. While genetic factors contribute to susceptibility and progression of renal disease, proteinuria has been claimed as an independent predictor of outcome. Reduction of urinary protein levels by various medications and a low-protein diet limits renal function decline in individuals with nondiabetic and diabetic nephropathies to the point that remission of the disease and regression of renal lesions have been observed in experimental animals and even in humans. In animal models, regression of glomerular structural changes is associated with remodeling of the glomerular architecture. Instrumental to this discovery were 3D reconstruction studies of the glomerular capillary tuft, which allowed the quantification of sclerosis volume reduction and capillary regeneration upon treatment. Regeneration of capillary segments might result from the contribution of resident cells, but progenitor cells of renal or extrarenal origin may also have a role. This review describes recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and mediators underlying renal tissue repair ultimately responsible for regression of renal injury.
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              Myofibroblast differentiation during fibrosis: role of NAD(P)H oxidases.

              Progression of fibrosis involves interstitial hypercellularity, matrix accumulation, and atrophy of epithelial structures, resulting in loss of normal function and ultimately organ failure. There is common agreement that the fibroblast/myofibroblast is the cell type most responsible for interstitial matrix accumulation and consequent structural deformations associated with fibrosis. During wound healing and progressive fibrotic events, fibroblasts transform into myofibroblasts acquiring smooth muscle features, most notably the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and synthesis of mesenchymal cell-related matrix proteins. In renal disease, glomerular mesangial cells also acquire a myofibroblast phenotype and synthesize the same matrix proteins. The origin of interstitial myofibroblasts during fibrosis is a matter of debate, where the cells are proposed to derive from resident fibroblasts, pericytes, perivascular adventitial, epithelial, and/or endothelial sources. Regardless of the origin of the cells, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is the principal growth factor responsible for myofibroblast differentiation to a profibrotic phenotype and exerts its effects via Smad signaling pathways involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt/protein kinase B. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in progression of fibrosis. ROS are derived from a variety of enzyme sources, of which the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) oxidase family has been identified as a major source of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation in the cardiovasculature and kidney during health and disease. Recent evidence indicates that the NAD(P)H oxidase homolog Nox4 is most accountable for ROS-induced fibroblast and mesangial cell activation, where it has an essential role in TGF-β1 signaling of fibroblast activation and differentiation into a profibrotic myofibroblast phenotype and matrix production. Information on the role of ROS in mesangial cell and fibroblast signaling is incomplete, and further research on myofibroblast differentiation during fibrosis is warranted.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Investigation
                Role: Investigation
                Role: Investigation
                Role: Investigation
                Role: Investigation
                Role: Investigation
                Role: InvestigationRole: Project administration
                Role: Investigation
                Role: InvestigationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                17 January 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Nephrology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
                [2 ] Department of Nephrology, Nitobe Memorial Nakano General Hospital, Nakano-ku, Tokyo, Japan
                The University of Tokyo, JAPAN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-36318
                10.1371/journal.pone.0190493
                5771558
                29342207
                © 2018 Iimori et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 5, Pages: 13
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nephrology
                Chronic Kidney Disease
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Signs and Symptoms
                Proteinuria
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Signs and Symptoms
                Proteinuria
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Endocrinology
                Endocrine Disorders
                Diabetes Mellitus
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Metabolic Disorders
                Diabetes Mellitus
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nephrology
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Cardiovascular Medicine
                Cardiovascular Diseases
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Renal Physiology
                Glomerular Filtration Rate
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Renal Physiology
                Glomerular Filtration Rate
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Renal System
                Kidneys
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Renal System
                Kidneys
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Prognosis
                Custom metadata
                Data are available from the Dryad repository (DOI: 10.5061/dryad.kq23s).

                Uncategorized

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