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      Is Anticoagulation Discontinuation Achievable with Citrate Dialysate during HDF Sessions?

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          Citrate dialysate has been developed for few years to replace acetate and HCl concentrates. In Online Postdilution Hemodiafiltration (OL-POST-HDF), several issues are remaining concerning the possibility of stopping anticoagulation during sessions and the side effects of citrate solutions on calcium metabolism. This 1-year monocentric retrospective study included all patients exposed to citrate in OL-POST-HDF with nadroparin decrease for more than one month. Clotting events, serum calcium, PTH, hemoglobin, CRP, depuration parameters, and treatments administrated were recorded for analysis. 27 patients experienced nadroparin decrease and 5 did not receive nadroparin at the end of the study. Nadroparin decrease and withdrawal were both associated with more clotting events whereas the use of vitamin K antagonists was protective. No significant metabolic side effects were observed. Citrate dialysate does not allow anticoagulation discontinuation or decrease but has no significant side effects on mineral bone metabolism or erythropoiesis.

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          Increased efficiency of hemodialysis with citrate dialysate: a prospective controlled study.

          A bicarbonate dialysate acidified with citrate (CD) has been reported to have local anticoagulant effect. This study examines the effect of CD on dialysis efficiency, measured as eKt/Vurea, and predialysis concentrations of BUN, creatinine, phosphate, and beta-2 microglobulin in chronic dialysis units. Three outpatient chronic hemodialysis units with 142 patients were switched to CD for 6 mo. Using each patient's prior 6 mo on regular bicarbonate dialysate acidified by acetate (AD) as control, eKt/Vurea was compared with that of CD. Follow-up data for 7 mo after the study were collected from about one-half of the participants remaining on CD and the others returned to AD. eKt/Vurea, increased (P < 0.0001) from pre-CD value of 1.51 +/- 0.01 to 1.57 +/- 0.01 with CD. During CD use beta-2 microglobulin levels declined (P = 0.0001) from 28.1 +/- 10.0 to 25.9 +/- 10.0. Similarly, the concentrations of BUN, creatinine, and phosphate also decreased on CD (P < 0.008). In the poststudy period, eKt/Vurea for the patients staying on CD remained unchanged at 1.60 +/- 0.17 versus 1.59 +/- 0.18 (P = NS), whereas in those returning to AD the eKt/Vurea decreased from 1.55 +/- 0.20 to 1.52 +/- 0.17 (P < 0.0001). Data suggest that CD use is associated with increased solute removal.
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            Citrate- vs. acetate-based dialysate in bicarbonate haemodialysis: consequences on haemodynamics, coagulation, acid-base status, and electrolytes

            Background A concentrate for bicarbonate haemodialysis acidified with citrate instead of acetate has been marketed in recent years. The small amount of citrate used (one-fifth of the concentration adopted in regional anticoagulation) protects against intradialyser clotting while minimally affecting the calcium concentration. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of citrate- and acetate-based dialysates on systemic haemodynamics, coagulation, acid-base status, calcium balance and dialysis efficiency. Methods In 25 patients who underwent a total of 375 dialysis sessions, an acetate dialysate (A) was compared with a citrate dialysate with (C+) or without (C) calcium supplementation (0.25 mmol/L) in a randomised single-blind cross-over study. Systemic haemodynamics were evaluated using pulse-wave analysis. Coagulation, acid-base status, calcium balance and dialysis efficiency were assessed using standard biochemical markers. Results Patients receiving the citrate dialysate had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (BP) (-4.3 mmHg, p < 0.01) and peripheral resistances (PR) (-51, p < 0.001) while stroke volume was not increased. In hypertensive patients there was a substantial reduction in BP (-7.8 mmHg, p < 0.01). With the C+ dialysate the BP gap was less pronounced but the reduction in PR was even greater (-226, p < 0.001). Analyses of the fluctuations in PR and of subjective tolerance suggested improved haemodynamic stability with the citrate dialysate. Furthermore, an increase in pre-dialysis bicarbonate and a decrease in pre-dialysis BUN, post-dialysis phosphate and ionised calcium were noted. Systemic coagulation activation was not influenced by citrate. Conclusion The positive impact on dialysis efficiency, acid-base status and haemodynamics, as well as the subjective tolerance, together indicate that citrate dialysate can significantly contribute to improving haemodialysis in selected patients. Trial registration NCT00718289
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              Dialysate made from dry chemicals using citric acid increases dialysis dose.

              A new dry dialysate concentrate acidified with citric acid (citrate dialysate) has been used in two separate clinical studies of hemodialysis patients. The first compared a single treatment using this dialysate, with one dialysis using regular standard dialysate acidified with acetic acid (regular dialysate) in a prospective, randomized, crossover study of 74 dialyses. Changes in blood levels of electrolytes and other blood constituents during dialysis were calculated by subtracting postdialysis from predialysis blood concentrations. Compared with acetic acid dialysate, citrate dialysate was associated with significantly greater decreases in total and ionized calcium, magnesium, and chloride levels. Citrate dialysate was also associated with greater increases in serum sodium and citrate concentrations, although their postdialysis concentrations remained within or just outside normal ranges. Changes in other blood constituents were similar with both dialysates. The second study used citrate dialysate exclusively for all dialyses over a 12-week period in 25 patients. Predialysis blood samples were drawn at the start of the study and at 4-week intervals thereafter, and postdialysis blood samples were obtained after the first and last dialysis. Repeated-measure analysis showed that although predialysis blood concentrations of magnesium, potassium, and citrate remained within the normal range, there was a significant declining trend over the course of the study. At the same time, predialysis serum bicarbonate levels increased, and significantly more patients had a predialysis bicarbonate concentration within the normal range at the end of the study than at the start (15 versus 8 patients; P = 0.001, chi-square). In 19 patients (excluding 3 patients for whom the type of dialyzer was changed during the study), the dose of dialysis for the first and last dialysis was calculated by urea reduction ratio and Kt/V. There was a significant increase in both measurements without changes in dialysis time, blood and dialysate flows, or dialyzer used. The urea reduction ratio increased from 68% +/- 5.9% to 73% +/- 5.3% (P < 0. 03), and the Kt/V from 1.23 +/- 0.19 to 1.34 +/- 0.20 (P = 0.01) from the first to last dialysis, respectively. In conclusion, this citric acid dialysate was well tolerated, and intradialytic changes in blood chemistries were similar to those seen with regular dialysate. Using dialysate containing citric instead of acetic acid increases the delivered dialysis dose.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nephrol
                Int J Nephrol
                International Journal of Nephrology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                10 October 2016
                : 2016
                1AUB Santé, Saint-Malo Dialysis Unit, 1 rue de la Marne, 35400 Saint-Malo, France
                2Rennes 1 University, CHU Rennes Department of Clinical Pharmacology, INSERM Pharmacoepidemiology Team CIC0203 BIOSIT, 35043 Rennes, France
                3Hôpital de Saint-Malo, Medical Laboratory, 35400 Saint-Malo, France
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Alessandro Amore

                Copyright © 2016 Thibault Dolley-Hitze et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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