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      Metal-organic framework-derived bamboo-like nitrogen-doped graphene tubes as an active matrix for hybrid oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts.

      Small (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany)
      Wiley
      graphene tubes, nanocomposites, oxygen reduction, Pt nanoparticles, electrocatalysts

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          Abstract

          In this work, large size (i.e., diameter > 100 nm) graphene tubes with nitrogen-doping are prepared through a high-temperature graphitization process of dicyandiamide (DCDA) and Iron(II) acetate templated by a novel metal-organic framework (MIL-100(Fe)). The nitrogen-doped graphene tube (N-GT)-rich iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) catalysts exhibit inherently high activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in more challenging acidic media. Furthermore, aiming to improve the activity and stability of conventional Pt catalysts, the ORR active N-GT is used as a matrix to disperse Pt nanoparticles in order to build a unique hybrid Pt cathode catalyst. This is the first demonstration of the integration of a highly active Fe-N-C catalyst with Pt nanoparticles. The synthesized 20% Pt/N-GT composite catalysts demonstrate significantly enhanced ORR activity and H(2) -air fuel cell performance relative to those of 20% Pt/C, which is mainly attributed to the intrinsically active N-GT matrix along with possible synergistic effects between the non-precious metal active sites and the Pt nanoparticles. Unlike traditional Pt/C, the hybrid catalysts exhibit excellent stability during the accelerated durability testing, likely due to the unique highly graphitized graphene tube morphologies, capable of providing strong interaction with Pt nanoparticles and then preventing their agglomeration.

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          Most cited references45

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          High-performance electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction derived from polyaniline, iron, and cobalt.

          The prohibitive cost of platinum for catalyzing the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has hampered the widespread use of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. We describe a family of non-precious metal catalysts that approach the performance of platinum-based systems at a cost sustainable for high-power fuel cell applications, possibly including automotive power. The approach uses polyaniline as a precursor to a carbon-nitrogen template for high-temperature synthesis of catalysts incorporating iron and cobalt. The most active materials in the group catalyze the ORR at potentials within ~60 millivolts of that delivered by state-of-the-art carbon-supported platinum, combining their high activity with remarkable performance stability for non-precious metal catalysts (700 hours at a fuel cell voltage of 0.4 volts) as well as excellent four-electron selectivity (hydrogen peroxide yield <1.0%).
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            Recent advances in non-precious metal catalysis for oxygen-reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte fuelcells

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              Synthesis and catalytic properties of MIL-100(Fe), an iron(III) carboxylate with large pores.

              The large-pore iron(III) carboxylate MIL-100(Fe) with a zeotype architecture has been isolated under hydrothermal conditions, its structure solved from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, while Friedel-Crafts benzylation catalytic tests indicate a high activity and selectivity for MIL-100(Fe).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                25400088
                10.1002/smll.201402069

                graphene tubes,nanocomposites,oxygen reduction,Pt nanoparticles,electrocatalysts

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