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      Design Issues for Clinical Trials in Acute Renal Failure

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

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          Effects of different doses in continuous veno-venous haemofiltration on outcomes of acute renal failure: a prospective randomised trial.

          Continuous veno-venous haemofiltration is increasingly used to treat acute renal failure in critically ill patients, but a clear definition of an adequate treatment dose has not been established. We undertook a prospective randomised study of the impact different ultrafiltration doses in continuous renal replacement therapy on survival. We enrolled 425 patients, with a mean age of 61 years, in intensive care who had acute renal failure. Patients were randomly assigned ultrafiltration at 20 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 1, n=146), 35 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 2, n=139), or 45 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 3, n=140). The primary endpoint was survival at 15 days after stopping haemofiltration. We also assessed recovery of renal function and frequency of complications during treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. Survival in group 1 was significantly lower than in groups 2 (p=0.0007) and 3 (p=0.0013). Survival in groups 2 and 3 did not differ significantly (p=0.87). Adjustment for possible confounding factors did not change the pattern of differences among the groups. Survivors in all groups had lower concentrations of blood urea nitrogen before continuous haemofiltration was started than non-survivors. 95%, 92%, and 90% of survivors in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, had full recovery of renal function. The frequency of complications was similarly low in all groups. Mortality among these critically ill patients was high, but increase in the rate of ultrafiltration improved survival significantly. We recommend that ultrafiltration should be prescribed according to patient's bodyweight and should reach at least 35 mL h(-1) kg(-1).
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            Anaritide in acute tubular necrosis. Auriculin Anaritide Acute Renal Failure Study Group.

            Atrial natriuretic peptide, a hormone synthesized by the cardiac atria, increases the glomerular filtration rate by dilating afferent arterioles while constricting efferent arterioles. It has been shown to improve glomerular filtration, urinary output, and renal histopathology in laboratory animals with acute renal dysfunction. Anaritide is a 25-amino-acid synthetic form of atrial natriuretic peptide. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of anaritide in 504 critically ill patients with acute tubular necrosis. The patients received a 24-hour intravenous infusion of either anaritide (0.2 microgram per kilogram of body weight per minute) or placebo. The primary end point was dialysis-free survival for 21 days after treatment. Other end points included the need for dialysis, changes in the serum creatinine concentration, and mortality. The rate of dialysis-free survival was 47 percent in the placebo group and 43 percent in the anaritide group (P = 0.35). In the prospectively defined subgroup of 120 patients with oliguria (urinary output, < 400 ml per day), dialysis-free survival was 8 percent in the placebo group (5 of 60 patients) and 27 percent in the anaritide group (16 of 60 patients, P = 0.008). Anaritide-treated patients with oliguria who no longer had oliguria after treatment benefited the most. Conversely, among the 378 patients without oliguria, dialysis-free survival was 59 percent in the placebo group (116 of 195 patients) and 48 percent in the anaritide group (88 of 183 patients, P = 0.03). The administration of anaritide did not improve the overall rate of dialysis-free survival in critically ill patients with acute tubular necrosis. However, anaritide may improve dialysis-free survival in patients with oliguria and may worsen it in patients without oliguria who have acute tubular necrosis.

              Author and article information

              Blood Purif
              Blood Purification
              S. Karger AG
              28 December 2000
              : 19
              : 2
              : 233-237
              Division of Kidney, Urologic and Hematologic Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Md., USA
              46947 Blood Purif 2001;19:233–237
              © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology


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