We have investigated gonadal development and growth in 4 individuals (3 with 46, XY and 1 with 46, XX karyotype) with P450<sub>scc</sub> deficiency. One patient died at 2 months of age from adrenal insufficiency, while the remaining 3 individuals were healthy and developed normally (age at follow-up: 18, 10 and 8 years). In the surviving individuals, the diagnosis was established during the first 2–4 months of life by extensive endocrine studies of blood and urine. In the remaining patient, the diagnosis was made on the basis of karyotype (46, XY), anatomy of internal and external genitalia and adrenal pathology. Gonadectomy was performed in the 2 surviving 46, XY individuals at the age of 7 years, and histological examination showed normal testicular morphology but very few germ cells. Postmortem examination of the testes of the 2-month-old subject showed normal testicular histology, and quantitative analysis revealed a normal number of germ cells. Ultrasound of the 46, XX individual showed normal internal female genitalia including ovaries with follicles. The 3 surviving patients grew along the 75th (46, XY), the 90th (46, XY) and the 50th percentile (46, XX), respectively. The oldest girl experienced normal breast and pubic hair development after oral estrogen replacement and topical testosterone administration. The glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was adjusted in accordance with repeated measurements of serum sodium and serum potassium, plasma renin concentration and blood pressure. No attempts were made to normalize serum ACTH. We conclude that prenatal testicular maturation and development of female internal genitalia may take place in the absence of normal steroid hormone production. Normal growth and development may be obtained in P450<sub>scc</sub>-deficient individuals with adequate hormone replacement.