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      25-Gauge Vitrectomy Combined with Half-Fluence Photodynamic Therapy for the Treatment of Juxtapapillary Retinal Capillary Hemangioma: A Case Report

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          Abstract

          A rare case of juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangioma (JRCH) with tractional macular detachment that was managed successfully with minimally invasive 25-gauge vitreoretinal surgery, followed by two sessions of half-fluence photodynamic treatment (PDT) with good visual outcome, is presented. A 13-year-old female patient had progressive deterioration of the vision of her right eye due to the presence of tractional macular detachment associated with JRCH in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. A 25-gauge sutureless vitreoretinal surgery was successfully performed. Two months following surgery, the JRCH was treated with two sessions of half-fluence PDT at an interval of 4 months. Visual acuity improved from a preoperative level of 20/50 to 20/25 24 months postoperatively. Resolution of the tractional macular detachment, reduction of papillomacular area fluid, and reduction in size of the JRCH were observed during the follow-up period. No serious adverse events were observed. Small-gauge vitreoretinal surgery followed by PDT can be effective and safe in relieving tractional macular detachment and recovering useful visual acuity in JRCH in VHL disease.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Advantages and limitations of small gauge vitrectomy.

          Small gauge vitrectomy utilizing 23- and 25-gauge instrumentation has definite advantages, but also limitations, due to the physics of smaller instruments and sutureless surgery. Higher infusion and aspiration pressures are needed to remove the vitreous using 23- and 25-gauge probes. The advantages include decreased surgical times, less tissue manipulation, reduced inflammation and pain postoperatively with more rapid visual recovery. A disadvantage is greater instrument flexion than 20-gauge probes, making small gauge vitrectomy more appropriate for indications such as vitreous opacities, epiretinal membranes, macular holes, and simple retinal detachments. There are also some increased complications related to small gauge vitrectomy, including dislocation of cannulas intraoperatively, early postoperative hypotony, choroidal detachment, and possibly an increased risk of infectious endophthalmitis.
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            Treatment of retinal capillary hemangioma.

            To report on the methods of treatment and the visual outcome of eyes with retinal capillary hemangioma (RCH). Retrospective consecutive noncomparative case series. Data on 68 patients with RCH were reviewed for the methods of treatment and visual outcome. Statistical analysis using cumulative multinomial logistic regression (generalized estimating equations) was performed to determine significant predictors of visual outcome. Among 68 patients with RCH with von Hippel-Lindau disease (n = 31) and without von Hippel-Lindau disease (n = 37), we identified 174 RCH in 86 eyes. The overall median age at diagnosis of RCH was 30.8 years (range, 2.8-73.8 years). The RCH was bilateral in 18 cases (26%), and a family history of von Hippel-Lindau disease was positive in 19 cases (28%). Twenty-nine of the tumors (17%) touched the optic disc and were classified as juxtapapillary RCH, and the remaining 145 (83%) were extrapapillary in location. Ninety-nine (58%) RCH were 1.5 mm or smaller in size. The RCH were initially managed by observation (46%), laser photocoagulation (25%), or cryotherapy (23%). Small RCH (< or =1.5 mm in size; 63 of 99; 64%) and those touching the optic disc (14 of 29; 48%) were more likely to be initially observed. Sixty-three (82%) of the 77 RCH that were initially observed remained stable for a median follow-up of 84 months. The remaining 14 progressed and were successfully controlled with laser photocoagulation or cryotherapy. Either laser photocoagulation or cryotherapy was effective as the sole method of treatment in controlling 74% (26 of 35) and 72% (28 of 39) of extrapapillary tumors, with a mean number of 1.2 and 1.1 sessions, respectively. In a multivariate model, the only variables that were significantly related to final vision of
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              Benefits and complications of photodynamic therapy of papillary capillary hemangiomas.

              To evaluate the potential benefit and risks of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of papillary capillary hemangioma. Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. Five patients with solitary capillary hemangioma on the temporal portion of the optic nerve presenting with exudative decompensation and decrease in visual acuity (VA). All eyes received a standardized PDT treatment with 6 mg/kg body surface area verteporfin and application of 100 J/cm(2) light at 692 nm. One to three PDT courses were performed until resolution of exudation was achieved. A continuous follow-up was provided with documentation 1 week before and at 4 to 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after the last treatment application. Functional parameters included best-refracted VA (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study), and central scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) scotometry and peripheral (automated perimetry) visual fields; anatomic parameters were presence of retinal edema or serous detachment (ophthalmoscopy) and tumor size (ultrasonography). Pretreatment VA levels ranged from 20/40 to 20/800; posttreatment levels ranged from 20/64 to 20/2000. Tumor regression with resolution of macular exudate and serous retinal detachment was obtained in all eyes. A decline in VA of 1, 3, and 10 lines, respectively, was documented in three patients. Complications included transient decompensation of vascular permeability, occlusion of retinal vessels, and ischemia of the optic nerve. PDT is successful in reducing tumor size and exudative activity. Vaso-occlusive effects at the level of the retina and optic nerve compromise the functional benefit. Parameters proven safe in choroidal neovascularization may be inappropriate in retinal capillary lesions of the optic nerve.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                COP
                COP
                10.1159/issn.1663-2699
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2699
                2014
                May – August 2014
                29 May 2014
                : 5
                : 2
                : 162-167
                Affiliations
                aOphthalmology Department, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, and bDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
                Author notes
                *Andrea Saitta, Ophthalmology, Department of Neuroscience, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Conca 71, IT-60020 Ancona (Italy), E-Mail andrea@dottorsaitta.it
                Article
                363564 PMC4067723 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2014;5:162-167
                10.1159/000363564
                PMC4067723
                24987366
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Published: May 2014

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