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Expanding use of new oral anticoagulants

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      Abstract

      New, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been developed to overcome the limitations of warfarin. These include dabigatran, which inhibits thrombin, and rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, which inhibit factor Xa. In the US, rivaroxaban and apixaban are licensed for thromboprophylaxis after elective hip or knee arthroplasty, and rivaroxaban and dabigatran are approved for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban also are licensed for stroke prevention in eligible patients with atrial fibrillation. Designed to be given in fixed doses without routine coagulation monitoring, the NOACs are more convenient to administer than warfarin. Phase III clinical trials have shown that the NOACs are at least as effective as warfarin and are associated with less intracranial bleeding. This article compares the pharmacological properties of the NOACs with those of warfarin, describes the clinical trial data with the NOACs in the approved indications, outlines the unmet medical needs that the NOACs address, highlights the potential limitations of the NOACs, and provides guidance on the optimal use of the NOACs.

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      Projections of primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States from 2005 to 2030.

      Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of revision total hip and knee arthroplasties performed in the United States. The purpose of this study was to formulate projections for the number of primary and revision total hip and knee arthroplasties that will be performed in the United States through 2030. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1990 to 2003) was used in conjunction with United States Census Bureau data to quantify primary and revision arthroplasty rates as a function of age, gender, race and/or ethnicity, and census region. Projections were performed with use of Poisson regression on historical procedure rates in combination with population projections from 2005 to 2030. By 2030, the demand for primary total hip arthroplasties is estimated to grow by 174% to 572,000. The demand for primary total knee arthroplasties is projected to grow by 673% to 3.48 million procedures. The demand for hip revision procedures is projected to double by the year 2026, while the demand for knee revisions is expected to double by 2015. Although hip revisions are currently more frequently performed than knee revisions, the demand for knee revisions is expected to surpass the demand for hip revisions after 2007. Overall, total hip and total knee revisions are projected to grow by 137% and 601%, respectively, between 2005 and 2030. These large projected increases in demand for total hip and knee arthroplasties provide a quantitative basis for future policy decisions related to the numbers of orthopaedic surgeons needed to perform these procedures and the deployment of appropriate resources to serve this need.
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        Meta-analysis: antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke in patients who have nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

        Atrial fibrillation is a strong independent risk factor for stroke. To characterize the efficacy and safety of antithrombotic agents for stroke prevention in patients who have atrial fibrillation, adding 13 recent randomized trials to a previous meta-analysis. Randomized trials identified by using the Cochrane Stroke Group search strategy, 1966 to March 2007, unrestricted by language. All published randomized trials with a mean follow-up of 3 months or longer that tested antithrombotic agents in patients who have nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Two coauthors independently extracted information regarding interventions; participants; and occurrences of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, major extracranial bleeding, and death. Twenty-nine trials included 28,044 participants (mean age, 71 years; mean follow-up, 1.5 years). Compared with the control, adjusted-dose warfarin (6 trials, 2900 participants) and antiplatelet agents (8 trials, 4876 participants) reduced stroke by 64% (95% CI, 49% to 74%) and 22% (CI, 6% to 35%), respectively. Adjusted-dose warfarin was substantially more efficacious than antiplatelet therapy (relative risk reduction, 39% [CI, 22% to 52%]) (12 trials, 12 963 participants). Other randomized comparisons were inconclusive. Absolute increases in major extracranial hemorrhage were small (< or =0.3% per year) on the basis of meta-analysis. Methodological features and quality varied substantially and often were incompletely reported. Adjusted-dose warfarin and antiplatelet agents reduce stroke by approximately 60% and by approximately 20%, respectively, in patients who have atrial fibrillation. Warfarin is substantially more efficacious (by approximately 40%) than antiplatelet therapy. Absolute increases in major extracranial hemorrhage associated with antithrombotic therapy in participants from the trials included in this meta-analysis were less than the absolute reductions in stroke. Judicious use of antithrombotic therapy importantly reduces stroke for most patients who have atrial fibrillation.
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          2012 focused update of the ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: an update of the 2010 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation. Developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University and the Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute 237 Barton Street East, Hamilton, ON, L8L 2X2Canada
            Contributors
            Journal
            F1000Prime Rep
            F1000Prime Rep
            F1000Prime Reports
            Faculty of 1000 Ltd
            2051-7599
            01 October 2014
            2014
            : 6
            4191267
            10.12703/P6-93
            93
            © 2014 Faculty of 1000 Ltd

            All F1000Prime Reports articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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