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      A TASMAN Expedition: Development of a Questionnaire to Assess Specific Self-Management Abilities

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Self-management (SM) is a core component of well-being and perceived health for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Most theories on SM share that self-efficacy, illness-perception and coping are determinants of SM behavior. Optimal support to improve SM should be tailored to the individual patient’s level of these determinants as SM abilities vary between patients. To tailor SM support, it is therefore necessary to assess the scores on these determinants. Unfortunately, no such instrument exists for clinical use. Therefore, the first goal of this study was to verify presumed correlations between SM and the determinants thereof. The second goal was to develop an instrument to assess the SM abilities.

          Methods

          In this cross-sectional, observational study, COPD patients completed the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) and the Utrecht Proactive Coping Competence measure (UPCC) as well as the Self-Management Ability Scale (SMAS-30). Correlations between the questionnaires were assessed and a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify the best-fitting items in the three independent variables related to SM. These items were used to create an instrument to assess SM abilities.

          Results

          Hundred COPD patients (58 males, 41 females, 1 unknown) were included. The correlation between SM and self-efficacy, illness perception on concerns and proactive coping was moderate and significant (r=0.318, p<0.01; r=−.230, p<0.05; r=.426, p<0.01, respectively). PCA identified six UPCC items and nine GSES items that met the predefined criteria. These items were supplemented with the B-IPQ concerns item to establish the new instrument to assess SM abilities.

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          Most cited references 15

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          A single European currency for EQ-5D health states. Results from a six-country study.

          The EQ-5D questionnaire is a widely used generic instrument for describing and valuing health that was developed by the EuroQol Group. A primary objective of the EuroQol Group is the investigation of values for health states in the general population in different countries. As part of the EuroQol enterprise 11 population surveys were carried out in six Western European countries (Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK) to value health states as defined by the EQ-5D using a standardised visual analogue scale (EQ-5D VAS). This contribution reports how a European set of general population preference weights was derived from the data collected in the 11 valuation studies. The scores from this set of preference weights can be applied to generate a VAS-based weighted health status index for all the potential 243 EQ-5D health states for use in multi-national studies. To estimate the preference weights a multi-level regression analysis was performed on 82,910 valuations of 44 EQ-5D health states elicited from 6,870 respondents. Stable and plausible solutions were found for the model parameters. The R(2) value was 75%. The analysis showed that the major source of variance, apart from 'random error', was variance between individuals (28.3% of the total residual variance). These results suggest that VAS values for EQ-5D health states in six Western European countries can be described by a common model.
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            Self-management support interventions to reduce health care utilisation without compromising outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

            Background There is increasing interest in the role of ‘self-management’ interventions to support the management of long-term conditions in health service settings. Self-management may include patient education, support for decision-making, self-monitoring and psychological and social support. Self-management support has potential to improve the efficiency of health services by reducing other forms of utilisation (such as primary care or hospital use), but a shift to self-management may lead to negative outcomes, such as patients who feel more anxious about their health, are less able to cope, or who receive worse quality of care, all of which may impact on their health and quality of life. We sought to determine which models of self-management support are associated with significant reductions in health services utilisation without compromising outcomes among patients with long-term conditions. Methods We used systematic review with meta-analysis. We included randomised controlled trials in patients with long-term conditions which included self-management support interventions and reported measures of service utilisation or costs, as well as measures of health outcomes (standardized disease specific quality of life, generic quality of life, or depression/anxiety).We searched multiple databases (CENTRAL, CINAHL, Econlit, EMBASE, HEED, MEDLINE, NHS EED and PsycINFO) and the reference lists of published reviews. We calculated effects sizes for both outcomes and costs, and presented the results in permutation plots, as well as conventional meta-analyses. Results We included 184 studies. Self-management support was associated with small but significant improvements in health outcomes, with the best evidence of effectiveness in patients with diabetic, respiratory, cardiovascular and mental health conditions. Only a minority of self-management support interventions reported reductions in health care utilisation in association with decrements in health. Evidence for reductions in utilisation associated with self-management support was strongest in respiratory and cardiovascular problems. Studies at higher risk of bias were more likely to report benefits. Conclusions Self-management support interventions can reduce health service utilization without compromising patient health outcomes, although effects were generally small, and the evidence was strongest in respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. Further work is needed to determine which components of self-management support are most effective. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-356) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              Patient and Disease Characteristics Associated with Activation for Self-Management in Patients with Diabetes, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Heart Failure and Chronic Renal Disease: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study

              A substantial proportion of chronic disease patients do not respond to self-management interventions, which suggests that one size interventions do not fit all, demanding more tailored interventions. To compose more individualized strategies, we aim to increase our understanding of characteristics associated with patient activation for self-management and to evaluate whether these are disease-transcending. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in primary and secondary care in patients with type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM-II), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) and Chronic Renal Disease (CRD). Using multiple linear regression analysis, we analyzed associations between self-management activation (13-item Patient Activation Measure; PAM-13) and a wide range of socio-demographic, clinical, and psychosocial determinants. Furthermore, we assessed whether the associations between the determinants and the PAM were disease-transcending by testing whether disease was an effect modifier. In addition, we identified determinants associated with low activation for self-management using logistic regression analysis. We included 1154 patients (53% response rate); 422 DM-II patients, 290 COPD patients, 223 HF patients and 219 CRD patients. Mean age was 69.6±10.9. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed 9 explanatory determinants of activation for self-management: age, BMI, educational level, financial distress, physical health status, depression, illness perception, social support and underlying disease, explaining a variance of 16.3%. All associations, except for social support, were disease transcending. This study explored factors associated with varying levels of activation for self-management. These results are a first step in supporting clinicians and researchers to identify subpopulations of chronic disease patients less likely to be engaged in self-management. Increased scientific efforts are needed to explain the greater part of the factors that contribute to the complex nature of patient activation for self-management.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                19 June 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 1415-1423
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Family Medicine, Maastricht University, CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute , Maastricht, the Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Erasmus University Medical Center , Rotterdam, the Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Centre , Leiden, the Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence: M Voorhaar Email m.voorhaar@maastrichtuniversity.nl
                Article
                224943
                10.2147/COPD.S224943
                7310989
                © 2020 Voorhaar et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 25, Pages: 9
                Funding
                Funded by: Boehringer Ingelheim 10.13039/100001003
                The research was supported by a grant provided by Boehringer Ingelheim bv NL. The views expressed in the paper are those of the authors.
                Categories
                Original Research

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