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      Guideline-directed medical therapy in heart failure patients: impact of focused care provided by a heart failure clinic in comparison to general cardiology out-patient department

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          Abstract

          Background

          The usage of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) in the treatment of heart failure (HF) has shown to reduce morbidity and mortality. However, majority of the HF patients do not receive GDMT or do not achieve the target dose. Literature has shown that the patients who are managed in HF clinics receive GDMT and target doses of disease-modifying drugs (DMD) when compared to those treated in other general cardiology outpatient departments (OPD’s). It was a retrospective hospital-based study in which patients treated in HF clinic and other cardiology OPD in the year of 2017 were included (200 patients in each arm). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of heart failure clinics in medication therapy management including usage of guideline-directed medical therapy, if target dose specified by the guideline is achieved and time to reach target dose in comparison to other general cardiology OPD’s. IRB and IEC approval were obtained before the commencement of the study. Data relevant to the study were obtained from the electronic medical record (EMR) and were compared between the study groups to see for the adherence to guideline and achievement of target doses. Data storage and analysis were performed using SPSS Version 24. A significance level of 5% was used.

          Results

          The usage of GDMT was higher in HF clinic when compared to other cardiology OPD (81% vs 55%, P = 0.001). A significantly higher number of patients in HF clinic achieved target dose when compared to other cardiology OPD (58% vs 29% -betablockers, 45% vs 9% -ACEI/ARB/ARNI, P = 0.000). Moreover, the number of eligible patients receiving DMD was found to be higher in HF clinic (98% vs 85% -betablockers, 69% vs 44% -ACEI/ARB/ARNI, 76% vs 44% -MRA). Also, the patients in HF clinic attained the target doses faster when compared to other cardiology OPD. In addition, there was better improvement in ejection fraction, as well as decreased rate of rehospitalisation and mortality in patients managed in HF clinic.

          Conclusion

          HF clinics were compared with other cardiology OPD for various parameters and it was observed that HF clinics were better than other cardiology OPD in maintaining the medication therapy management.

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          Most cited references 15

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          The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial.

           HJ Dargie,  P. Lechat (1999)
          In patients with heart failure, beta-blockade has improved morbidity and left-ventricular function, but the impact on survival is uncertain. We investigated the efficacy of bisoprolol, a beta1 selective adrenoceptor blocker in decreasing all-cause mortality in chronic heart failure. In a multicentre double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in Europe, we enrolled 2647 symptomatic patients in New York Heart Association class III or IV, with left-ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less receiving standard therapy with diuretics and inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme. We randomly assigned patients bisoprolol 1.25 mg (n=1327) or placebo (n=1320) daily, the drug being progressively increased to a maximum of 10 mg per day. Patients were followed up for a mean of 1.3 years. Analysis was by intention to treat. CIBIS-II was stopped early, after the second interim analysis, because bisoprolol showed a significant mortality benefit. All-cause mortality was significantly lower with bisoprolol than on placebo (156 [11.8%] vs 228 [17.3%] deaths with a hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% CI 0.54-0.81, p<0.0001). There were significantly fewer sudden deaths among patients on bisoprolol than in those on placebo (48 [3.6%] vs 83 [6.3%] deaths), with a hazard ratio of 0.56 (0.39-0.80, p=0.0011). Treatment effects were independent of the severity or cause of heart failure. Beta-blocker therapy had benefits for survival in stable heart-failure patients. Results should not, however, be extrapolated to patients with severe class IV symptoms and recent instability because safety and efficacy has not been established in these patients.
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            Trends in heart failure incidence and survival in a community-based population.

            The epidemic of heart failure has yet to be fully investigated, and data on incidence, survival, and sex-specific temporal trends in community-based populations are limited. To test the hypothesis that the incidence of heart failure has declined and survival after heart failure diagnosis has improved over time but that secular trends have diverged by sex. Population-based cohort study using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Patients were 4537 Olmsted County residents (57% women; mean [SD] age, 74 [14] years) with a diagnosis of heart failure between 1979 and 2000. Framingham criteria and clinical criteria were used to validate the diagnosis Incidence of heart failure and survival after heart failure diagnosis. The incidence of heart failure was higher among men (378/100 000 persons; 95% confidence interval [CI], 361-395 for men; 289/100 000 persons; 95% CI, 277-300 for women) and did not change over time among men or women. After a mean follow-up of 4.2 years (range, 0-23.8 years), 3347 deaths occurred, including 1930 among women and 1417 among men. Survival after heart failure diagnosis was worse among men than women (relative risk, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.24-1.43) but overall improved over time (5-year age-adjusted survival, 43% in 1979-1984 vs 52% in 1996-2000, P<.001). However, men and younger persons experienced larger survival gains, contrasting with less or no improvement for women and elderly persons. In this community-based cohort, the incidence of heart failure has not declined during 2 decades, but survival after onset of heart failure has increased overall, with less improvement among women and elderly persons.
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              Effect of carvedilol on the morbidity of patients with severe chronic heart failure: results of the carvedilol prospective randomized cumulative survival (COPERNICUS) study.

              Beta-blocking agents improve functional status and reduce morbidity in mild-to-moderate heart failure, but it is not known whether they produce such benefits in severe heart failure. We randomly assigned 2289 patients with symptoms of heart failure at rest or on minimal exertion and with an ejection fraction <25% (but not volume-overloaded) to double-blind treatment with either placebo (n=1133) or carvedilol (n=1156) for an average of 10.4 months. Carvedilol reduced the combined risk of death or hospitalization for a cardiovascular reason by 27% (P=0.00002) and the combined risk of death or hospitalization for heart failure by 31% (P=0.000004). Patients in the carvedilol group also spent 27% fewer days in the hospital for any reason (P=0.0005) and 40% fewer days in the hospital for heart failure (P<0.0001). These differences were as a result of both a decrease in the number of hospitalizations and a shorter duration of each admission. More patients felt improved and fewer patients felt worse in the carvedilol group than in the placebo group after 6 months of maintenance therapy (P=0.0009). Carvedilol-treated patients were also less likely than placebo-treated patients to experience a serious adverse event (P=0.002), especially worsening heart failure, sudden death, cardiogenic shock, or ventricular tachycardia. In euvolemic patients with symptoms at rest or on minimal exertion, the addition of carvedilol to conventional therapy ameliorates the severity of heart failure and reduces the risk of clinical deterioration, hospitalization, and other serious adverse clinical events.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jeevatresa@gmail.com
                stephyps5@gmail.com
                judejames666@gmail.com
                suja@nirmalacp.org
                drjabi@yahoo.co.in
                Journal
                Egypt Heart J
                Egypt Heart J
                The Egyptian Heart Journal
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                1110-2608
                2090-911X
                24 August 2020
                24 August 2020
                December 2020
                : 72
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nirmala College of Pharmacy, Muvattupuzha, Ernakulam Dist, Kerala, 686661 India
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Lisie Hospital, Kochi, Kerala India
                Article
                88
                10.1186/s43044-020-00088-8
                7445219
                32833163
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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