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      New horizons for inorganic solid state ion conductors

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          This critical review presents the state of the art research progress, proposes strategies to improve the conductivity of solid electrolytes, discusses the chemical and electrochemical stabilities, and uncovers future perspectives for solid state batteries.


          Among the contenders in the new generation energy storage arena, all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have emerged as particularly promising, owing to their potential to exhibit high safety, high energy density and long cycle life. The relatively low conductivity of most solid electrolytes and the often sluggish charge transfer kinetics at the interface between solid electrolyte and electrode layers are considered to be amongst the major challenges facing ASSBs. This review presents an overview of the state of the art in solid lithium and sodium ion conductors, with an emphasis on inorganic materials. The correlations between the composition, structure and conductivity of these solid electrolytes are illustrated and strategies to boost ion conductivity are proposed. In particular, the high grain boundary resistance of solid oxide electrolytes is identified as a challenge. Critical issues of solid electrolytes beyond ion conductivity are also discussed with respect to their potential problems for practical applications. The chemical and electrochemical stabilities of solid electrolytes are discussed, as are chemo-mechanical effects which have been overlooked to some extent. Furthermore, strategies to improve the practical performance of ASSBs, including optimizing the interface between solid electrolytes and electrode materials to improve stability and lower charge transfer resistance are also suggested.

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          Building better batteries.

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            Electrical energy storage for the grid: a battery of choices.

            The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.
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              Challenges for Rechargeable Li Batteries†


                Author and article information

                Energy & Environmental Science
                Energy Environ. Sci.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                : 11
                : 8
                : 1945-1976
                [1 ]Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy
                [2 ]Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices
                [3 ]Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics
                [4 ]Institute of Physics
                [5 ]Chinese Academy of Sciences
                [6 ]Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research
                [7 ]Stuttgart 70569
                [8 ]Germany
                [9 ]Institute of Physical Chemistry & Center for Materials Research
                [10 ]Justus-Liebig-University Giessen
                [11 ]35392 Giessen
                [12 ]Department of Chemistry
                [13 ]Waterloo Institute of Nanotechnology
                [14 ]University of Waterloo
                [15 ]Waterloo
                [16 ]Canada
                [17 ]School of Materials Science and Engineering
                [18 ]Tsinghua University
                [19 ]Beijing 100084
                [20 ]China
                [21 ]CIC Energigune
                [22 ]Alava Technology Park
                [23 ]4801510 MIÑANO Álava
                [24 ]Spain
                © 2018


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