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      Serum cytokine profiling and enrichment analysis reveal the involvement of immunological and inflammatory pathways in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem. It results from chronic inflammation and causes irreversible airway damage. Levels of different serum cytokines could be surrogate biomarkers for inflammation and lung function in COPD. We aimed to determine the serum levels of different biomarkers in COPD patients, the association between cytokine levels and various prognostic parameters, and the key pathways/networks involved in stable COPD. In this study, serum levels of 48 cytokines were examined by multiplex assays in 30 subjects (control, n=9; COPD, n=21). Relationships between serum biomarkers and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, peak oxygen uptake, body mass index, dyspnea score, and smoking were assessed. Enrichment pathways and network analyses were implemented, using a list of cytokines showing differential expression between healthy controls and patients with COPD by Cytoscape and GeneGo Metacore™ software (Thomson-Reuters Corporation, New York, NY, USA). Concentrations of cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine, eotaxin, hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-16, and stem cell factor are significantly higher in COPD patients compared with in control patients. Notably, this study identifies stem cell factor as a biomarker for COPD. Multiple regression analysis predicts that cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine, eotaxin, IL-6, and stem cell factor are inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak oxygen uptake change, whereas smoking is related to eotaxin and hepatocyte growth factor changes. Enrichment pathways and network analyses reveal the potential involvement of specific inflammatory and immune process pathways in COPD. Identified network interaction and regulation of different cytokines would pave the way for deeper insight into mechanisms of the disease process.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Epidemiology Standardization Project (American Thoracic Society).

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            The cytokine network in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

             Peter Barnes (2008)
            Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are very common inflammatory diseases of the airways. They both cause airway narrowing and are increasing in incidence throughout the world, imposing enormous burdens on health care. Cytokines play a key role in orchestrating the chronic inflammation and structural changes of the respiratory tract in both asthma and COPD and have become important targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies in these diseases.
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              Immunologic aspects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                05 August 2014
                : 9
                : 759-773
                [1 ]Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
                [2 ]Program in Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, and Institute of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
                [3 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Sleep Disorders, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Anjana Talwar, Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India (PIN-110029), Tel +91 98 1150 5070, Email anjanatalwar@
                © 2014 Bade et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, bio-plex assay, biomarkers, pathways, networking


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