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      Impact of statins on risk of new onset diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database

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          Abstract

          Statin therapy is beneficial in reducing cardiovascular events and mortalities in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Yet, there have been concerns of increased risk of diabetes with statin use. This study was aimed to evaluate the association between statins and new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) utilizing the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims database. Among adult patients with preexisting IHD, new statin users and matched nonstatin users were identified on a 1:1 ratio using proportionate stratified random sampling by sex and age. They were subsequently propensity score matched further with age and comorbidities to reduce the selection bias. Overall incidence rates, cumulative rates and hazard ratios (HRs) between statin use and occurrence of NODM were estimated. The subgroup analyses were performed according to sex, age groups, and the individual agents and intensities of statins. A total of 156,360 patients (94,370 in the statin users and 61,990 in the nonstatin users) were included in the analysis. The incidence rates of NODM were 7.8% and 4.8% in the statin users and nonstatin users, respectively. The risk of NODM was higher among statin users (crude HR 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.93–2.10; adjusted HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.63–2.09). Pravastatin had the lowest risk (adjusted HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32–1.81) while those who were exposed to more than one statin were at the highest risk of NODM (adjusted HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.93–2.37). It has been concluded that all statins are associated with the risk of NODM in patients with IHD, and it is believed that our study would contribute to a better understanding of statin and NODM association by analyzing statin use in the real-world setting. Periodic screening and monitoring for diabetes are warranted during prolonged statin therapy in patients with IHD.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S)

          Drug therapy for hypercholesterolaemia has remained controversial mainly because of insufficient clinical trial evidence for improved survival. The present trial was designed to evaluate the effect of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin on mortality and morbidity in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). 4444 patients with angina pectoris or previous myocardial infarction and serum cholesterol 5.5-8.0 mmol/L on a lipid-lowering diet were randomised to double-blind treatment with simvastatin or placebo. Over the 5.4 years median follow-up period, simvastatin produced mean changes in total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol of -25%, -35%, and +8%, respectively, with few adverse effects. 256 patients (12%) in the placebo group died, compared with 182 (8%) in the simvastatin group. The relative risk of death in the simvastatin group was 0.70 (95% CI 0.58-0.85, p = 0.0003). The 6-year probabilities of survival in the placebo and simvastatin groups were 87.6% and 91.3%, respectively. There were 189 coronary deaths in the placebo group and 111 in the simvastatin group (relative risk 0.58, 95% CI 0.46-0.73), while noncardiovascular causes accounted for 49 and 46 deaths, respectively. 622 patients (28%) in the placebo group and 431 (19%) in the simvastatin group had one or more major coronary events. The relative risk was 0.66 (95% CI 0.59-0.75, p < 0.00001), and the respective probabilities of escaping such events were 70.5% and 79.6%. This risk was also significantly reduced in subgroups consisting of women and patients of both sexes aged 60 or more. Other benefits of treatment included a 37% reduction (p < 0.00001) in the risk of undergoing myocardial revascularisation procedures. This study shows that long-term treatment with simvastatin is safe and improves survival in CHD patients.
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            Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease (PROSPER): a randomised controlled trial.

            Although statins reduce coronary and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality in middle-aged individuals, their efficacy and safety in elderly people is not fully established. Our aim was to test the benefits of pravastatin treatment in an elderly cohort of men and women with, or at high risk of developing, cardiovascular disease and stroke. We did a randomised controlled trial in which we assigned 5804 men (n=2804) and women (n=3000) aged 70-82 years with a history of, or risk factors for, vascular disease to pravastatin (40 mg per day; n=2891) or placebo (n=2913). Baseline cholesterol concentrations ranged from 4.0 mmol/L to 9.0 mmol/L. Follow-up was 3.2 years on average and our primary endpoint was a composite of coronary death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or non-fatal stroke. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Pravastatin lowered LDL cholesterol concentrations by 34% and reduced the incidence of the primary endpoint to 408 events compared with 473 on placebo (hazard ratio 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97, p=0.014). Coronary heart disease death and non-fatal myocardial infarction risk was also reduced (0.81, 0.69-0.94, p=0.006). Stroke risk was unaffected (1.03, 0.81-1.31, p=0.8), but the hazard ratio for transient ischaemic attack was 0.75 (0.55-1.00, p=0.051). New cancer diagnoses were more frequent on pravastatin than on placebo (1.25, 1.04-1.51, p=0.020). However, incorporation of this finding in a meta-analysis of all pravastatin and all statin trials showed no overall increase in risk. Mortality from coronary disease fell by 24% (p=0.043) in the pravastatin group. Pravastatin had no significant effect on cognitive function or disability. Pravastatin given for 3 years reduced the risk of coronary disease in elderly individuals. PROSPER therefore extends to elderly individuals the treatment strategy currently used in middle aged people.
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              Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2016
                11 October 2016
                : 12
                : 1533-1543
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea
                [3 ]Department of Biomedical Informatics, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea
                [4 ]Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, South Korea
                [5 ]Division of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sukhyang Lee, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, 206 Worldcup-ro Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-749, South Korea, Tel +82 31 219 3443, Fax +82 31 219 3435, Email suklee@ 123456ajou.ac.kr
                Article
                tcrm-12-1533
                10.2147/TCRM.S117150
                5066992
                © 2016 Lee et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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