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      Overexpression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene from Caragana korshinskii decreases stomatal density and enhances drought tolerance


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          Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis and plays a key role in plant stress responses. In this study, the endogenous expression of the Caragana korshinskii γ-ECS ( Ckγ-ECS) gene was induced by PEG 6000-mediated drought stress in the leaves of C. korshinskii. and the Ckγ-ECS overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants was constructed using the C. korshinskii. isolated γ-ECS.


          Compared with the wildtype, the Ckγ-ECS overexpressing plants enhanced the γ-ECS activity, reduced the stomatal density and aperture sizes; they also had higher relative water content, lower water loss, and lower malondialdehyde content. At the same time, the mRNA expression of stomatal development-related gene EPF1 was increased and FAMA and STOMAGEN were decreased. Besides, the expression of auxin-relative signaling genes AXR3 and ARF5 were upregulated.


          These changes suggest that transgenic Arabidopsis improved drought tolerance, and Ckγ-ECS may act as a negative regulator in stomatal development by regulating the mRNA expression of EPF1 and STOMAGEN through auxin signaling.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12870-021-03226-9.

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          Most cited references58

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          Floral dip: a simplified method forAgrobacterium-mediated transformation ofArabidopsis thaliana

          The Agrobacterium vacuum infiltration method has made it possible to transform Arabidopsis thaliana without plant tissue culture or regeneration. In the present study, this method was evaluated and a substantially modified transformation method was developed. The labor-intensive vacuum infiltration process was eliminated in favor of simple dipping of developing floral tissues into a solution containing Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 5% sucrose and 500 microliters per litre of surfactant Silwet L-77. Sucrose and surfactant were critical to the success of the floral dip method. Plants inoculated when numerous immature floral buds and few siliques were present produced transformed progeny at the highest rate. Plant tissue culture media, the hormone benzylamino purine and pH adjustment were unnecessary, and Agrobacterium could be applied to plants at a range of cell densities. Repeated application of Agrobacterium improved transformation rates and overall yield of transformants approximately twofold. Covering plants for 1 day to retain humidity after inoculation also raised transformation rates twofold. Multiple ecotypes were transformable by this method. The modified method should facilitate high-throughput transformation of Arabidopsis for efforts such as T-DNA gene tagging, positional cloning, or attempts at targeted gene replacement.
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            Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance.

            Traditionally, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were considered to be toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism, which were disposed of using antioxidants. However, in recent years, it has become apparent that plants actively produce ROIs as signaling molecules to control processes such as programmed cell death, abiotic stress responses, pathogen defense and systemic signaling. Recent advances including microarray studies and the development of mutants with altered ROI-scavenging mechanisms provide new insights into how the steady-state level of ROIs are controlled in cells. In addition, key steps of the signal transduction pathway that senses ROIs in plants have been identified. These raise several intriguing questions about the relationships between ROI signaling, ROI stress and the production and scavenging of ROIs in the different cellular compartments.
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              Reactive Oxygen Species, Oxidative Damage, and Antioxidative Defense Mechanism in Plants under Stressful Conditions


                Author and article information

                BMC Plant Biol
                BMC Plant Biol
                BMC Plant Biology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1 October 2021
                1 October 2021
                : 21
                [1 ]GRID grid.144022.1, ISNI 0000 0004 1760 4150, College of Horticulture, , Northwest A&F University, ; Yangling, 712100 Shaanxi China
                [2 ]GRID grid.144022.1, ISNI 0000 0004 1760 4150, College of Life Sciences, , Northwest A&F University, ; Yangling, 712100 Shaanxi China
                [3 ]GRID grid.22069.3f, ISNI 0000 0004 0369 6365, School of Life Sciences, , East China Normal University, ; Shanghai, 200241 China
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

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                © The Author(s) 2021

                Plant science & Botany
                drought stress,auxin signaling,gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase,stomatal development


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