46
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Following “the Roots” of Kratom ( Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom), a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i) reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii) provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii) explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv) identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon.

          Related collections

          Most cited references88

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users.

          Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) preparations have been traditionally used in Southeast Asia for its medicinal properties. Lately, Kratom use has spread to Europe and the US, where abuse potential and health hazards increasingly emerge. This study is the first to measure systematically Kratom dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and drug craving in regular Kratom users in Malaysia.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Chemistry and pharmacology of analgesic indole alkaloids from the rubiaceous plant, Mitragyna speciosa.

            The leaves of a tropical plant, Mitragyna speciosa KORTH (Rubiaceae), have been traditionally used as a substitute for opium. Phytochemical studies of the constituents of the plant growing in Thailand and Malaysia have led to the isolation of several 9-methoxy-Corynanthe-type monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, including new natural products. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and/or synthetic methods. The potent opioid agonistic activities of mitragynine, the major constituent of this plant, and its analogues were found in in vitro and in vivo experiments and the mechanisms underlying the analgesic activity were clarified. The essential structural features of mitragynines, which differ from those of morphine and are responsible for the analgesic activity, were elucidated by pharmacological evaluation of the natural and synthetic derivatives. Among the mitragynine derivatives, 7-hydroxymitragynine, a minor constituent of M. speciosa, was found to exhibit potent antinociceptive activity in mice.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic and opioid-like effects.

              Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Thailand and Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves produce complex stimulant and opioid-like analgesic effects. In Asia, kratom has been used to stave off fatigue and to manage pain, diarrhea, cough, and opioid withdrawal. Recently, kratom has become widely available in the United States and Europe by means of smoke shops and the Internet. Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal. Kratom contains pharmacologically active constituents, most notably mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. Kratom is illegal in many countries. Although it is still legal in the United States, the US Drug Enforcement Administration has placed kratom on its "Drugs and Chemicals of Concern" list. Physicians should be aware of the availability, user habits, and health effects of kratom. Further research on the therapeutic uses, toxic effects, and abuse potential of kratom and its constituent compounds are needed.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2015
                10 November 2015
                : 2015
                : 968786
                Affiliations
                1Centre for Clinical & Health Research Services, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane Campus, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB, UK
                2Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, Gabriele D'Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy
                3Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains, Penang, Malaysia
                4Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
                5London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Health and Social Care, London, UK
                6Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
                7Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
                8School of Pharmacy and Ph.D. Program in Toxicology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                9Faculty of Health Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
                10Nyírő Gyula Hospital, National Institute of Psychiatry and Addictions, Budapest, Hungary
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Yu-Ping Tang

                Article
                10.1155/2015/968786
                4657101
                26640804
                6a28cbea-4839-4342-aa5f-fa2c46c7f80f
                Copyright © 2015 Eduardo Cinosi et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 7 August 2015
                : 13 October 2015
                : 15 October 2015
                Categories
                Research Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article