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      Immunogenomic classification of lung squamous cell carcinoma characterizes tumor immune microenvironment and predicts cancer therapy

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          Classification of triple-negative breast cancers based on Immunogenomic profiling

          Background Abundant evidence shows that triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is heterogeneous, and many efforts have been devoted to identifying TNBC subtypes on the basis of genomic profiling. However, few studies have explored the classification of TNBC specifically based on immune signatures that may facilitate the optimal stratification of TNBC patients responsive to immunotherapy. Methods Using four publicly available TNBC genomics datasets, we classified TNBC on the basis of the immunogenomic profiling of 29 immune signatures. Unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods were used to perform the classification. Results We identified three TNBC subtypes that we named Immunity High (Immunity_H), Immunity Medium (Immunity_M), and Immunity Low (Immunity_L) and demonstrated that this classification was reliable and predictable by analyzing multiple different datasets. Immunity_H was characterized by greater immune cell infiltration and anti-tumor immune activities, as well as better survival prognosis compared to the other subtypes. Besides the immune signatures, some cancer-associated pathways were hyperactivated in Immunity_H, including apoptosis, calcium signaling, MAPK signaling, PI3K–Akt signaling, and RAS signaling. In contrast, Immunity_L presented depressed immune signatures and increased activation of cell cycle, Hippo signaling, DNA replication, mismatch repair, cell adhesion molecule binding, spliceosome, adherens junction function, pyrimidine metabolism, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis, and RNA polymerase pathways. Furthermore, we identified a gene co-expression subnetwork centered around five transcription factor (TF) genes (CORO1A, STAT4, BCL11B, ZNF831, and EOMES) specifically significant in the Immunity_H subtype and a subnetwork centered around two TF genes (IRF8 and SPI1) characteristic of the Immunity_L subtype. Conclusions The identification of TNBC subtypes based on immune signatures has potential clinical implications for TNBC treatment. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13046-018-1002-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Clarifying the spectrum of driver oncogene mutations in biomarker-verified squamous carcinoma of lung: lack of EGFR/KRAS and presence of PIK3CA/AKT1 mutations.

            There is persistent controversy as to whether EGFR and KRAS mutations occur in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC). We hypothesized that the reported variability may reflect difficulties in the pathologic distinction of true SQCC from adenosquamous carcinoma (AD-SQC) and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma due to incomplete sampling or morphologic overlap. The recent development of a robust immunohistochemical approach for distinguishing squamous versus glandular differentiation provides an opportunity to reassess EGFR/KRAS and other targetable kinase mutation frequencies in a pathologically homogeneous series of SQCC. Ninety-five resected SQCCs, verified by immunohistochemistry as ΔNp63(+)/TTF-1(-), were tested for activating mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, AKT1, ERBB2/HER2, and MAP2K1/MEK1. In addition, all tissue samples from rare patients with the diagnosis of EGFR/KRAS-mutant "SQCC" encountered during 5 years of routine clinical genotyping were reassessed pathologically. The screen of 95 biomarker-verified SQCCs revealed no EGFR/KRAS [0%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0%-3.8%], four PIK3CA (4%; 95% CI, 1%-10%), and one AKT1 (1%; 95% CI, 0%-5.7%) mutations. Detailed morphologic and immunohistochemical reevaluation of EGFR/KRAS-mutant "SQCC" identified during clinical genotyping (n = 16) resulted in reclassification of 10 (63%) cases as AD-SQC and five (31%) cases as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma morphologically mimicking SQCC (i.e., adenocarcinoma with "squamoid" morphology). One (6%) case had no follow-up. Our findings suggest that EGFR/KRAS mutations do not occur in pure pulmonary SQCC, and occasional detection of these mutations in samples diagnosed as "SQCC" is due to challenges with the diagnosis of AD-SQC and adenocarcinoma, which can be largely resolved by comprehensive pathologic assessment incorporating immunohistochemical biomarkers. ©2012 AACR.
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              Interferon gamma, an important marker of response to immune checkpoint blockade in non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma patients

              Background: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) may be induced by oncogenic signals or can be upregulated via interferon gamma (IFN-γ). We have explored whether the expression of IFNG, the gene encoding IFN-γ, is associated with clinical response to the immune checkpoint blockade in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma patients. The role of inflammation-associated transcription factors STAT3, IKBKE, STAT1 and other associated genes has also been examined. Methods: Total RNA from 17 NSCLC and 21 melanoma patients was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. STAT3 and Rantes, YAP1 and CXCL5, DNMT1, RIG1 and TET1, EOMES, IFNG, PD-L1 and CTLA4, IKBKE and NFATC1 mRNA were examined. PD-L1 protein expression in tumor and immune cells and stromal infiltration of CD8+ T-cells were also evaluated. Progression-free survival and overall survival were estimated. Results: A total of 17 NSCLC patients received nivolumab and 21 melanoma patients received pembrolizumab. Progression-free survival with nivolumab was significantly longer in NSCLC patients with high versus low IFNG expression (5.1 months versus 2 months, p = 0.0124). Progression-free survival with pembrolizumab was significantly longer in melanoma patients with high versus low IFNG expression (5.0 months versus 1.9 months, p = 0.0099). Significantly longer overall survival was observed for melanoma patients with high versus low IFNG expression (not reached versus 10.2 months p = 0.0183). There was a trend for longer overall survival for NSCLC patients with high versus low IFNG expression. Conclusions: IFN-γ is an important marker for prediction of response to immune checkpoint blockade. Further research is warranted in order to validate whether IFNG is more accurate than PD-L1.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                28 March 2023
                November 2023
                28 March 2023
                : 10
                : 6
                : 2274-2277
                Affiliations
                [a ]School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 46202, United States
                [b ]School of Chemical Engineering & Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430205, China
                [c ]Wuhan Fourth Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430033, China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Department of Oncology, Wuhan Fourth Hospital, No. 76, Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, Hubei 430034, China. fengjuepingpuai@ 123456163.com
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author. School of Medicine, Indiana University, 1044 W. Walnut Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. jianghub123@ 123456gmail.com
                [∗∗∗ ]Corresponding author. fdgszxy@ 123456163.com
                Article
                S2352-3042(23)00045-4
                10.1016/j.gendis.2023.01.022
                10404949
                37554217
                6a394298-707a-4775-86a4-2ae02478425d
                © 2023 The Authors. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 6 June 2022
                : 12 January 2023
                Categories
                Rapid Communication

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