+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The expansion of targetable biomarkers for CAR T cell therapy

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Biomarkers are an integral part of cancer management due to their use in risk assessment, screening, differential diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of response to treatment, and monitoring progress of disease. Recently, with the advent of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, a new category of targetable biomarkers has emerged. These biomarkers are associated with the surface of malignant cells and serve as targets for directing cytotoxic T cells. The first biomarker target used for CAR T cell therapy was CD19, a B cell marker expressed highly on malignant B cells. With the success of CD19, the last decade has shown an explosion of new targetable biomarkers on a range of human malignancies. These surface targets have made it possible to provide directed, specific therapy that reduces healthy tissue destruction and preserves the patient’s immune system during treatment. As of May 2018, there are over 100 clinical trials underway that target over 25 different surface biomarkers in almost every human tissue. This expansion has led to not only promising results in terms of patient outcome, but has also led to an exponential growth in the investigation of new biomarkers that could potentially be utilized in CAR T cell therapy for treating patients. In this review, we discuss the biomarkers currently under investigation and point out several promising biomarkers in the preclinical stage of development that may be useful as targets.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 273

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Untangling the ErbB signalling network.

          When epidermal growth factor and its relatives bind the ErbB family of receptors, they trigger a rich network of signalling pathways, culminating in responses ranging from cell division to death, motility to adhesion. The network is often dysregulated in cancer and lends credence to the mantra that molecular understanding yields clinical benefit: over 25,000 women with breast cancer have now been treated with trastuzumab (Herceptin), a recombinant antibody designed to block the receptor ErbB2. Likewise, small-molecule enzyme inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies to ErbB1 are in advanced phases of clinical testing. What can this pathway teach us about translating basic science into clinical use?
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            VEGF-targeted therapy: mechanisms of anti-tumour activity.

            Several vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted agents, administered either as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy, have been shown to benefit patients with advanced-stage malignancies. VEGF-targeted therapies were initially developed with the notion that they would inhibit new blood vessel growth and thus starve tumours of necessary oxygen and nutrients. It has become increasingly apparent, however, that the therapeutic benefit associated with VEGF-targeted therapy is complex, and probably involves multiple mechanisms. A better understanding of these mechanisms will lead to future advances in the use of these agents in the clinic.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Chemotherapy-refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and indolent B-cell malignancies can be effectively treated with autologous T cells expressing an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor.

              T cells can be genetically modified to express an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). We assessed the safety and efficacy of administering autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells to patients with advanced CD19(+) B-cell malignancies.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9115, GRID grid.253294.b, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, , Brigham Young University, ; 3142 LSB, Provo, UT 84602 USA
                [2 ]Thunder Biotech, Highland, UT USA
                ORCID:, 801-422-2449 ,
                J Exp Clin Cancer Res
                J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res
                Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research : CR
                BioMed Central (London )
                21 July 2018
                21 July 2018
                : 37
                30031396 6054736 817 10.1186/s13046-018-0817-0
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018


                Comment on this article