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      Acidification-induced cellular changes in Symbiodinium isolated from Mussismilia braziliensis

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          Abstract

          Dinoflagellates from the Symbiodiniaceae family and corals have an ecologically important endosymbiotic relationship. Scleractinian corals cannot survive for long periods without their symbionts. These algae, also known as zooxanthellae, on the other hand, thrives outside the coral cells. The free-living populations of zooxanthellae are essential for the resilience of the coral to environmental stressors such as temperature anomalies and ocean acidification. Yet, little is known about how ocean acidification may affect the free-living zooxanthellae. In this study we aimed to test morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of zooxanthellae from the Symbiodinium genus isolated from the coral Mussismilia braziliensis, endemic to the Brazilian coast, to acidification led by increased atmospheric CO 2. We tested whether photosynthetic yield, cell ultrastructure, cell density and lipid profile would change after up to 16 days of exposure to pH 7.5 in an atmospheric pCO 2 of 1633 μatm. Photosynthetic yield and cell density were negatively affected and chloroplasts showed vesiculated thylakoids, indicating morphological damage. Moreover, Symbiodinium fatty acid profile drastically changed in acidified condition, showing lower polyunsaturated fatty acids and higher saturated fatty acids contents, when compared to the control, non-acidified condition. These results show that seawater acidification as an only stressor causes significant changes in the physiology, biochemistry and ultrastructure of free-living Symbiodinium.

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis

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            A RAPID METHOD OF TOTAL LIPID EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION

             E G BLIGH,  W. Dyer (1959)
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              Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification.

              Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2 degrees C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse reef communities and carbonate reef structures that fail to be maintained. Climate change also exacerbates local stresses from declining water quality and overexploitation of key species, driving reefs increasingly toward the tipping point for functional collapse. This review presents future scenarios for coral reefs that predict increasingly serious consequences for reef-associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people. As the International Year of the Reef 2008 begins, scaled-up management intervention and decisive action on global emissions are required if the loss of coral-dominated ecosystems is to be avoided.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                5 August 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Diretoria de Pesquisas, Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [2 ] Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [3 ] Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [4 ] Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [5 ] Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                Mount Allison University, CANADA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-19-03777
                10.1371/journal.pone.0220130
                6681953
                31381568
                © 2019 Hill et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, Pages: 21
                Product
                Funding
                This study was financed by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) and Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis/BRASOIL. GCA, GMAF, LTS, MF, PSS and RLM. received CNPq research productivity fellowships. GMAF, MF and LTS received FAPERJ research productivity fellowships.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Aquatic Environments
                Marine Environments
                Sea Water
                Earth Sciences
                Marine and Aquatic Sciences
                Aquatic Environments
                Marine Environments
                Sea Water
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Lipids
                Sterols
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Lipids
                Fatty Acids
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Marine Biology
                Corals
                Earth Sciences
                Marine and Aquatic Sciences
                Marine Biology
                Corals
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biochemistry
                Lipids
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Structures and Organelles
                Chloroplasts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Plant Cell Biology
                Chloroplasts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Cell Biology
                Chloroplasts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Types
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Plant Cell Biology
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Cell Biology
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Molecular Biology
                Macromolecular Structure Analysis
                Lipid Analysis
                Earth Sciences
                Atmospheric Science
                Atmospheric Chemistry
                Greenhouse Gases
                Carbon Dioxide
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Environmental Chemistry
                Atmospheric Chemistry
                Greenhouse Gases
                Carbon Dioxide
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Environmental Chemistry
                Atmospheric Chemistry
                Greenhouse Gases
                Carbon Dioxide
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Compounds
                Carbon Dioxide
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

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