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      Three-dimensional printed tissue engineered bone for canine mandibular defects


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          Three-dimensional (3D) printed tissue engineered bone was used to repair the bone tissue defects in the oral and maxillofacial (OMF) region of experimental dogs.

          Material and methods

          Canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were obtained from 9 male Beagle dogs and in vitro cultured for osteogenic differentiation. The OMF region was scanned for 3D printed surgical guide plate and mold by ProJet1200 high-precision printer using implant materials followed sintering at 1250 °C. The tissue engineered bones was co-cultured with BASCs for 2 or 8 d. The cell scaffold composite was placed in the defects and fixed in 9 dogs in 3 groups. Postoperative CT and/or micro-CT scans were performed to observe the osteogenesis and material degradation.


          BMSCs were cultured with osteogenic differentiation in the second generation (P2). The nanoporous hydroxyapatite implant was made using the 3D printing mold with the white porous structure and the hard texture. BMSCs with osteogenic induction were densely covered with the surface of the material after co-culture and ECM was secreted to form calcium-like crystal nodules. The effect of the tissue engineered bone on the in vivo osteogenesis ability was no significant difference between 2 d and 8 d of the compositing time.


          The tissue-engineered bone was constructed by 3D printing mold and high-temperature sintering to produce nanoporous hydroxyapatite scaffolds, which repair in situ bone defects in experimental dogs. The time of compositing for tissue engineered bone was reduced from 8 d to 2 d without the in vivo effect.

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          Most cited references12

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          Three-dimensionally printed biological machines powered by skeletal muscle.

          Combining biological components, such as cells and tissues, with soft robotics can enable the fabrication of biological machines with the ability to sense, process signals, and produce force. An intuitive demonstration of a biological machine is one that can produce motion in response to controllable external signaling. Whereas cardiac cell-driven biological actuators have been demonstrated, the requirements of these machines to respond to stimuli and exhibit controlled movement merit the use of skeletal muscle, the primary generator of actuation in animals, as a contractile power source. Here, we report the development of 3D printed hydrogel "bio-bots" with an asymmetric physical design and powered by the actuation of an engineered mammalian skeletal muscle strip to result in net locomotion of the bio-bot. Geometric design and material properties of the hydrogel bio-bots were optimized using stereolithographic 3D printing, and the effect of collagen I and fibrin extracellular matrix proteins and insulin-like growth factor 1 on the force production of engineered skeletal muscle was characterized. Electrical stimulation triggered contraction of cells in the muscle strip and net locomotion of the bio-bot with a maximum velocity of ∼ 156 μm s(-1), which is over 1.5 body lengths per min. Modeling and simulation were used to understand both the effect of different design parameters on the bio-bot and the mechanism of motion. This demonstration advances the goal of realizing forward-engineered integrated cellular machines and systems, which can have a myriad array of applications in drug screening, programmable tissue engineering, drug delivery, and biomimetic machine design.
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            Generation of three-dimensional hepatocyte/gelatin structures with rapid prototyping system.

            Using rapid prototyping technology, three-dimensional (3D) structures composed of hepatocytes and gelatin hydrogel have been formed. This technique employs a highly accurate 3D micropositioning system with a pressure-controlled syringe to deposit cell/biomaterial structures with a lateral resolution of 10 microm. The pressure-activated micro-syringe is equipped with a fine-bore exit needle for which a wide variety of 3D patterns with different arrays of channels (through-holes) were created. More than 30 layers of a hepatocyte/gelatin mixture were laminated into a high spacial structure using this method. The laminated hepatocytes remained viable and performed biological functions in the construct for more than 2 months. The rapid prototyping technology offers potential for eventual high-throughout production of artificial human tissues or organs.
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              Three-dimensional printing of nanomaterial scaffolds for complex tissue regeneration.

              Three-dimensional (3D) printing has recently expanded in popularity, and become the cutting edge of tissue engineering research. A growing emphasis from clinicians on patient-specific care, coupled with an increasing knowledge of cellular and biomaterial interaction, has led researchers to explore new methods that enable the greatest possible control over the arrangement of cells and bioactive nanomaterials in defined scaffold geometries. In this light, the cutting edge technology of 3D printing also enables researchers to more effectively compose multi-material and cell-laden scaffolds with less effort. In this review, we explore the current state of 3D printing with a focus on printing of nanomaterials and their effect on various complex tissue regeneration applications.

                Author and article information

                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                08 May 2019
                March 2020
                08 May 2019
                : 7
                : 1
                : 138-149
                [a ]Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
                [b ]Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital of Stomatology Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, 646000, China
                [c ]Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, 646000, China
                [d ]Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, 646000, China
                [e ]Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, 646000, China
                Author notes
                [] Corresponding author. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Street, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400016, China. kai.kaiyang@ 123456yandex.com
                © 2019 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 10 January 2019
                : 1 April 2019
                : 9 April 2019

                mandibular defect,tissue engineering bone,3d printing,cad/cam,bmscs


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