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      Defective Processing and Trafficking of Water Channels in Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus

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          Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a disease characterized by the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine upon stimulation with vasopressin. Mutations in the gene for aquaporin-2 (AQP2) are the cause of the autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant forms of NDI. Mutant AQP2 proteins, found in autosomal recessive NDI, were shown to be misfolded and retarded in the endoplasmic reticulum. One mutant protein leading to autosomal dominant NDI, E258K, has been analyzed in detail. It was shown that this mutant was not retarded in the endoplasmic reticulum but mainly retained in the Golgi network. Furthermore, this particular mutant was able to form heterotetramers with wild-type AQP2, in contrast to mutants found in autosomal recessive NDI. The subsequent misrouting of complexes containing wild-type and mutant AQP2 proteins explains dominant NDI.

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          The three-dimensional structure of aquaporin-1.

          The entry and exit of water from cells is a fundamental process of life. Recognition of the high water permeability of red blood cells led to the proposal that specialized water pores exist in the plasma membrane. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and functional studies of an erythrocyte integral membrane protein of relative molecular mass 28,000, identified it as the mercury-sensitive water channel, aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Many related proteins, all belonging to the major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, are found throughout nature. AQP1 is a homotetramer containing four independent aqueous channels. When reconstituted into lipid bilayers, the protein forms two-dimensional lattices with a unit cell containing two tetramers in opposite orientation. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of AQP1 determined at 6A resolution by cryo-electron microscopy. Each AQP1 monomer has six tilted, bilayer-spanning alpha-helices which form a right-handed bundle surrounding a central density. These results, together with functional studies, provide a model that identifies the aqueous pore in the AQP1 molecule and indicates the organization of the tetrameric complex in the membrane.
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            Molecular identification of the gene responsible for congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

            Antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasopressin) binds to and activates V2 receptors in renal collecting tubule cells. Subsequent stimulation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase system promotes insertion of water pores into the luminal membrane and thereby reabsorption of fluid. In congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI), an X-linked recessive disorder, the kidney fails to respond to arginine vasopressin. Here we report that an affected male of a family with CNDI has a deletion in the open reading frame of the V2 receptor gene, causing a frame shift and premature termination of translation in the third intracellular loop of the receptor protein. A normal receptor gene was found in the patient's brother. Both the normal and the mutant allele were detected in his mother. A different mutation, causing a codon change in the third transmembrane domain of the V2 receptor, was found in the open reading frame of an affected male but not in the unaffected brother belonging to another family suffering from CNDI.
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              Defective proximal tubular fluid reabsorption in transgenic aquaporin-1 null mice

              To investigate the role of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels in proximal tubule function, in vitro proximal tubule microperfusion and in vivo micropuncture measurements were done on AQP1 knockout mice. The knockout mice were generated by targeted gene disruption and found previously to be unable to concentrate their urine in response to water deprivation. Unanesthetized knockout mice consumed 2.8-fold more fluid than wild-type mice and had lower urine osmolality (505 ± 40 vs. 1081 ± 68 milliosmolar). Transepithelial osmotic water permeability (P f ) in isolated microperfused S2 segments of proximal tubule from AQP1 knockout [−/−] mice was 0.033 ± 0.005 cm/s (SE, n = 6 mice, 37°C), much lower than that of 0.15 ± 0.03 cm/s ( n = 8) in tubules from wild-type [+/+] mice ( P < 0.01). In the presence of isosmolar luminal perfusate and bath solutions, spontaneous fluid absorption rates (nl/min/mm tubule length) were 0.31 ± 0.12 (−/−, n = 5) and 0.64 ± 0.15 (+/+, n = 8). As determined by free-flow micropuncture, the ratios of tubular fluid-to-plasma concentrations of an impermeant marker TF/P in end proximal tubule fluid were 1.36 ± 0.05 (−/−, n = 8 mice [53 tubules]) and 1.95 ± 0.09 (+/+, n = 7 mice [40 tubules]) ( P < 0.001), corresponding to 26 ± 3% [−/−] and 48 ± 2% [+/+] absorption of the filtered fluid load. In collections of distal tubule fluid, TF/P were 2.8 ± 0.3 [−/−] and 4.4 ± 0.5 [+/+], corresponding to 62 ± 4% [−/−] and 76 ± 3% [+/+] absorption ( P < 0.02). These data indicate that AQP1 deletion in mice results in decreased transepithelial proximal tubule water permeability and defective fluid absorption. Thus, the high water permeability in proximal tubule of wild-type mice is primarily transcellular, mediated by AQP1 water channels, and required for efficient near-isosmolar fluid absorption.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                December 2000
                15 September 2000
                : 8
                : 6
                : 326-331
                Department of Cell Physiology, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                20686 Exp Nephrol 2000;8:326–331
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, References: 41, Pages: 6
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