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      Oxygen Sensing in Retinal Health and Disease

      review-article

      a, b , , a

      Ophthalmologica

      S. Karger AG

      Oxygen sensing, Retina

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          Abstract

          The retina has a uniquely high metabolic demand for oxygen that is normally met by a highly efficient vascular supply. Oxygen plays an essential role in oxidative phosphorylation as an electron acceptor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate required to support the metabolic demand, including that of the visual cycle. Maintenance of normal retinal function depends on a continuous supply of oxygen and on the capability to detect and respond rapidly to local oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). The functional reserve of oxygen is small and retinal hypoxia can cause neuroretinal dysfunction and degeneration that lead directly to vision loss. Local oxygen sensing mechanisms control adaptive responses that can help protect against ischaemic injury. In the retina, powerful oxygen sensing mechanisms rapidly detect alterations in intracellular oxygen tension and respond with adaptive changes that redress the balance between oxygen supply and demand. These responses include rapid changes in blood flow, protective metabolic adaptations and angiogenesis. In the eye, however, the angiogenic response to hypoxia is typically associated with oedema, haemorrhage and fibrosis that can exacerbate hypoxic neuroretinal injury, causing severe vision loss. This aberrant response is the target of novel therapies including inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor. However, non-specific angiostatic agents fail to consider appropriate beneficial adaptive responses to hypoxia, and risk compromising neuroprotective mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of retinal oxygenation and oxygen sensing in health and disease, focussing on the central role of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors, and suggest that therapeutic strategies may be improved by considering more targeted interventions.

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          Most cited references 145

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          HIFalpha targeted for VHL-mediated destruction by proline hydroxylation: implications for O2 sensing.

           M Ivan,  Theresa Kim,  A Salic (2001)
          HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) is a transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in cellular adaptation to changes in oxygen availability. In the presence of oxygen, HIF is targeted for destruction by an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL). We found that human pVHL binds to a short HIF-derived peptide when a conserved proline residue at the core of this peptide is hydroxylated. Because proline hydroxylation requires molecular oxygen and Fe(2+), this protein modification may play a key role in mammalian oxygen sensing.
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            Vascular-specific growth factors and blood vessel formation.

            A recent explosion in newly discovered vascular growth factors has coincided with exploitation of powerful new genetic approaches for studying vascular development. An emerging rule is that all of these factors must be used in perfect harmony to form functional vessels. These new findings also demand re-evaluation of therapeutic efforts aimed at regulating blood vessel growth in ischaemia, cancer and other pathological settings.
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              FIH-1: a novel protein that interacts with HIF-1alpha and VHL to mediate repression of HIF-1 transcriptional activity.

              Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis that controls angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, and glycolysis via transcriptional activation of target genes under hypoxic conditions. O(2)-dependent binding of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein targets the HIF-1alpha subunit for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The activity of the HIF-1alpha transactivation domains is also O(2) regulated by a previously undefined mechanism. Here, we report the identification of factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1), a protein that binds to HIF-1alpha and inhibits its transactivation function. In addition, we demonstrate that FIH-1 binds to VHL and that VHL also functions as a transcriptional corepressor that inhibits HIF-1alpha transactivation function by recruiting histone deacetylases. Involvement of VHL in association with FIH-1 provides a unifying mechanism for the modulation of HIF-1alpha protein stabilization and transcriptional activation in response to changes in cellular O(2) concentration.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2012
                March 2012
                22 September 2011
                : 227
                : 3
                : 115-131
                Affiliations
                aNIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology at Moorfields Eye Hospital and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK; bUniversity Eye Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
                Author notes
                *Prof. James Bainbridge, MA, PhD, FRCOphth, UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11–43 Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL (UK), Tel. +44 20 7608 6889, E-Mail j.bainbridge@ucl.ac.uk
                Article
                331418 Ophthalmologica 2012;227:115–131
                10.1159/000331418
                21952513
                © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 17
                Categories
                EURETINA – Review

                Vision sciences, Ophthalmology & Optometry, Pathology

                Retina, Oxygen sensing

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