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      Sporadic Multifocal Venous Malformations of the Head and Neck

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          Objective. To report a case of unusually widespread sporadic venous malformations of the head and neck associated with normal D-dimer levels and, due to the protean clinical manifestations and increased risk of coagulopathy of these lesions, to review their diagnosis and clinical management. Case Report. A 25-year-old man presented with a one-year history of intermittent right-sided neck swelling and tongue swelling. Physical exam revealed additional lesions present throughout the head and neck. There was no family history suggestive of heritable vascular malformations. Radiographic imaging demonstrated 15 lesions located in various tissue layers consistent with venous malformations. A coagulation screen showed a normal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, D-dimer level, and fibrinogen level. It was determined that the patient was not at increased risk for intraoperative coagulopathy and preoperative heparin administration would not be necessary. The patient's buccal and tongue lesions were subsequently excised with no complications. The patient also underwent sclerotherapy evaluation for his neck mass. Conclusion. This case describes a unique presentation of sporadic multifocal venous malformations. It also emphasizes the importance of prompt diagnosis and workup when multiple venous malformations are present to prevent morbidity during surgical excision secondary to intravascular coagulopathy.

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          Hemangiomas and vascular malformations in infants and children: a classification based on endothelial characteristics.

          Forty-nine specimens from a variety of vascular lesions were analyzed for cellular characteristics. Two major categories of lesions emerged from this investigation: hemangiomas and vascular malformations. This classification and its implications are justified by several considerations. Hemangiomas in the proliferating phase (n = 14) were distinguished by (1) endothelial hyperplasia with incorporation of [3H]thymidine, (2) multilaminated basement membrane formation beneath the endothelium, and (3) clinical history of rapid growth during early infancy. Hemangiomas in the involuting phase (n = 12) exhibited (1) histologic fibrosis and fat deposition, (2) low to absent [3H]thymidine labeling of endothelial cells, and (3) rapid growth and subsequent regression. The endothelium in hemangiomas had many characteristics of differentiation: Weibel-Palade bodies, alkaline phosphatase, and factor VIII production. Vascular malformations (n = 23) demonstrated no tritiated thymidine incorporation and normal ultrastructural characteristics. These lesions were usually noted at birth, grew proportionately with the child, and consisted of abnormal, often combined, capillary, arterial, venous, and lymphatic vascular elements. This cell-oriented analysis provides a simple yet comprehensive classification of vascular lesions of infancy and childhood and serves as a guide for diagnosis, management, and further research.
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            Somatic Mutations in the Angiopoietin-Receptor TIE2 Can Cause Both Solitary and Multiple Sporadic Venous Malformations

            Germline substitutions in the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2/TEK cause a rare inherited form of venous anomalies, mucocutaneous venous malformations (VMCM)1-4. We now identified a somatic 2nd hit causing loss-of-function of the receptor in a resected VMCM. We assessed for whether such localized, tissue-specific events play a role in the etiology of the far more common sporadic VM. Eight somatic TIE2 mutations were identified in lesions from 28 out of 57 patients (49.1%), not detected in their blood or in control tissues. The somatic mutations included a frequent L914F change, and a series of double-mutations that occurred in cis, all of which show ligand-independent hyperphosphorylation in vitro. When overexpressed in HUVECs, L914F showed abnormal localization and response to ligand, differing from wild-type and the common inherited R849W mutant, suggesting they may have distinct effects. The presence of the same mutations in multifocal VMs in two patients, suggests a common origin for the abnormal endothelial cells in the distant sites. In conclusion, these data illustrate that a sporadic disease may be explained by somatic changes in a gene causing rare, inherited forms, and pinpoint TIE2 pathways as potential therapeutic targets for VM.
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              Hemangiomas and Vascular Malformations in Infants and Children


                Author and article information

                Case Rep Otolaryngol
                Case Rep Otolaryngol
                Case Reports in Otolaryngology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                21 September 2015
                : 2015
                1Department of Otolaryngology, New York Medical College, New York, NY 10595, USA
                2Department of Otolaryngology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10003, USA
                Author notes
                *Neha A. Patel: nepatel@

                Academic Editor: Wolfgang Issing

                Copyright © 2015 Michael V. Amato et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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